VOL. XXXII JULY 15 No. 14
A.D. 1911--A.M. 6039
Our Convention Tour--No. 1........................211
The Church's Share in the Sin-Offering............212
Does the Church Add to the Sin-Offering?......213
The Voices of the Three Signs.....................214
The Voice of The First Sign...................215
The Voice of The Second Sign..................216
The Voice of The Third Sign...................217
Providing for One's Natural Household.............218
Retributive Discipline of the Millennium..........219
Prophesy Smooth Things............................220
Prophecy Against Jerusalem....................220
Destroying God's Word.............................221
The Propriety of Fasting..........................222
Holiness of the Heart Not a Mere Outward
Abstemiousness Specially Helpful at
Guided by God's Eye...............................223
Berean Questions in Scripture Studies.............223
WATCH TOWER BIBLE & TRACT SOCIETY
CHARLES T. RUSSELL, PRESIDENT
BROOKLYN TABERNACLE, 13-17 HICKS ST.,
BROOKLYN, N.Y., U.S.A.
Foreign Agencies:--British Branch: LONDON TABERNACLE, Lancaster Gate, W. German Branch: Unterdorner Str., 76, Barmen. Australasian Branch: Flinders Building, Flinders St., Melbourne. Please address the SOCIETY in every case.
ANNUAL SUBSCRIPTION PRICE, $1.00 (4s.) IN ADVANCE. SEND MONEY BY EXPRESS, BANK DRAFT, POSTAL ORDER, OR REGISTERED. FROM FOREIGN COUNTRIES BY FOREIGN MONEY ORDERS, ONLY.
Terms to the Lord's Poor as Follows:--All Bible Students who, by reason of old age, or other infirmity or adversity, are unable to pay for this Journal, will be supplied Free if they send a Postal Card each May stating their case and requesting its continuance. We are not only willing, but anxious, that all such be on our list continually and in touch with the STUDIES, etc.
ALSO FRENCH, GERMAN, SWEDISH, AND DANISH EDITIONS. SAMPLE COPIES FREE.
ENTERED AS SECOND-CLASS MAIL MATTER AT BROOKLYN, N.Y., POSTOFFICE ENTERED AS SECOND-CLASS MATTER AT THE POSTOFFICE DEPT., OTTAWA, CANADA
INTERNATIONAL BIBLE STUDENTS ASSOCIATION MEETINGS
AT WHICH BROTHER C.T. RUSSELL WILL BE PRINCIPAL SPEAKER FRIENDS FROM NEARBY PLACES ARE CORDIALLY INVITED.
WINNIPEG, CAN., JULY 8, 9, 10
The friends at Winnipeg advise that special railway rates for July 8, 9 and 10 have been arranged for on the C.P.R., C.N.R. and G.T.P.R. Friends may purchase a one-way single fare ticket to Winnipeg, asking their agent for a standard receipt certificate. The return fare will be free, one-third or two-thirds, according to the number attending. Your certificates will be required to be signed by the secretary, Brother W. H. Menery, at Winnipeg, for returning.
TORONTO, ONT., JULY 15-17
All services for the interested in Broadway Hall, 450 Spadina avenue. On Sunday, July 16, Brother Russell will address the general public at 3 p.m., and again at 7:30 p.m. in Massey Hall, corner of Victor and Shuter streets.
The Eastern Canadian Passenger Association, embracing the territory east of and including Port Arthur, Sault Ste. Marie and the St. Clair and Detroit Rivers, has granted a rate of one fare for the round trip plus 25c. on the certificate plan.
Buy a single trip ticket to Toronto and secure a standard certificate showing that you have purchased a one-way full-fare ticket to Toronto. This certificate, plus 25c., will, if the required number attend the convention, entitle the holder to a return ticket free. Deposit your certificates with the proper party at the Convention Hall immediately after arrival.
Inquire of Brother Wm. A. Sinclair, 193 Concord avenue, Toronto, as to rooms, sleeping accommodations, etc.
ACCOMMODATIONS AT MT. LAKE PARK, MD.
GENERAL CONVENTION--SEPTEMBER 1-11.
All proposing to attend this Convention may, if they choose, avail themselves of arrangements now being made by our Entertainment Committee. This Committee is contracting for some of the best rooms at the Park, and is paying $1.00 down, on account of board, to bind the contract. We have made arrangements for comfortable board and lodging for $7.00 per week, not less than two in a room, as the cottages and little hotels are numerous at the park. There is but one large hotel there; its terms are $2.00 per day and upward. We have secured some of the most desirable rooms in this hotel at a $2.00 rate, and some at $2.50 per day-- board included.
Such of our readers as desire us to definitely locate them there should write as soon as possible, sending $1.00 as advance payment to reimburse us. On receipt of letter with money there will be sent you a description of the room assigned to you, stating its location and approximate size. This will permit you to go immediately to your quarters on arrival at the Park, without delay or inconvenience.
The Entertainment Committee will, of course, do all in its power to locate comfortably such as may not send their orders to us in advance. It will be to the advantage of all, however, to follow the course first suggested.
Give this matter your immediate attention. Should anything occur to hinder your attendance after the assignment has been made, please advise the Committee at once. Rooms will not be held after Friday, September 1, the opening day, unless by special agreement. Address:
Entertainment Committee, "I.B.S.A.,"
17 Hicks street, Brooklyn, New York.
[CONTINUED ON LAST PAGE.]
ELMIRA, N.Y., JULY 23.
Morning Rally and discourse for the interested at 10:30 o'clock in Royal Arcanum Hall, 120 Lake street. Public discourse at 3 p.m., in the Lyceum Theater, Lake street. Topic: "Hereafter."
GALESBURG, ILL., JULY 30.
Brother Russell is the invited speaker at the Galesburg Chautauqua, Highland Park, Sunday, July 30. Morning Discourse at 11:15 o'clock and Public Address at 3 p.m. in the Auditorium, Highland Park, Galesburg, Ill. Topic of the afternoon lecture: "Hereafter."
BROOKLYN, N.Y., AUGUST 6.
Praise, Prayer and Testimony meeting at 10:30 a.m. Discourse in the afternoon at 3 o'clock. Topic: "The All-Seeing Eye." Question meeting in the evening. All services will be held in the Brooklyn Tabernacle, 13-17 Hicks street. No meeting will be held in the Academy of Music on this date, as that building is closed for the summer.
SHAMOKIN, PA., AUGUST 13.
ST. JOHNS, N.B., AUGUST 20, 21, 22.
RICHMOND, VA., AUGUST 27.
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OUR CONVENTION TOUR--NO. 1
HAVING reached Denver on our westward journey, we must give an account of the Lord's blessings and favors and our experiences; for we well know that the prayers and thoughts of many are with us. Although the blessing of the service keeps us busy continually, our thoughts and prayers go out to the Lord's dear flock collectively, and individually in many cases. "We share our mutual woes, our mutual burdens bear, and often for each other flows the sympathizing tear."
Our first stop was at Cleveland, Ohio, where a meeting had been arranged by the Bible Students in the interest of the Jews. The topic was, "Zionism the Hope of the World." We will not even outline the discourse, because the interested will have the report from our San Francisco meeting.
The meeting was successful in one sense of the word, in that the Lord always blesses those who seek to serve and praise Him; but it was not a success in respect to the number of Jews present. Two reasons contributed: (1) It was Friday night, the beginning of the Jewish Sabbath, the worst night in the week, as we subsequently learned; for the Orthodox Jews hold the Sabbath very sacred, and many of them would not even ride upon a street car on that day. (2) The prejudice awakened amongst the Jews by one or two of their journals calling us a "missionary" has not yet worn out. The audience altogether was probably a little over a thousand, and of these less than half, probably only three hundred, were Jews. The dear friends of the Cleveland Class felt a little disappointed that their efforts had not brought larger success. We encouraged them, however, with the thought that having done our best the results were entirely in the Lord's hands, and the credit that He would give them would be just as great as though five thousand had heard.
THE INDIANAPOLIS CONVENTION
The night train carried us to Indianapolis, where a Convention was already in progress and continued also after our leaving. The attendance was excellent--about six hundred (three or four hundred from the surrounding district). The attendance at the public service to hear about the "Hereafter" was about a thousand. Excellent
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attention was given, but how much "wheat" was ripened we, of course, know not. By some oversight this three-days' Convention at Indianapolis was not properly announced in THE WATCH TOWER--merely our special services were mentioned. But it was a success and a blessing evidently to many in attendance.
THE ST. LOUIS CONVENTION
A night ride brought us to St. Louis early on Sunday, June 11th, where we were met by the Convention Party, organized by Brother L. W. Jones, M.D., of Chicago. On the route its number has varied from one hundred and fifty to two hundred, some joining and some leaving at one place and another. It was a very happy company, amongst whom the Spirit of the Lord is quite manifest. The train consists of eight cars, including one for baggage. They are sleeping cars, and are not only comfortable but economical in that they save hotel expenses and transfers. In the party are five doctors. Chicago is, of course, better represented than any other city. All have the spirit of helpfulness, the spirit of love for the brethren, and a desire to spend and be spent in the Master's service. The presence of so goodly a company in the various Conventions of this trip certainly adds, not only to the singing, but also to the general interest of the meetings. The brethren take part in the testimony meetings and symposiums, and in giving addresses. Our own time being fully occupied, except when on the platform, has hindered us from enjoying these and making a report of them.
The Sunday afternoon meeting for the public on the topic of "Hereafter" was well attended, the audience numbering about fifteen hundred. The evening talk on "Zionism the Hope of the World" was not extensively advertised. The audience was estimated at about a thousand. Only a small proportion was Jewish--about one-third. On Monday our afternoon address to the interested and also our evening service (a Question Meeting) were well attended. The St. Louis Class seem to be in good spiritual condition so far as we can judge, earnestly pressing forward in love and devotion. Here, as elsewhere, we saw good evidence of the zeal of the friends in the circulation of the public announcements, and other necessary and expensive arrangements for the Convention services.
THE KANSAS CITY CONVENTION
Tuesday and Wednesday, June 13th and 14th, were devoted to Kansas City. There is quite a good sized class of Bible Students there, and their loving zeal was everywhere manifested. The meetings were all good. Brothers Ritchie, Swingle, Senor, Edgar, Jones and Wise participated in addresses on this occasion. "Convention Hall" had been secured for the public services, the first evening
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on "Hereafter," the following one on "Zionism the Hope of the World." The attendance was estimated at three thousand and one thousand respectively.
Here again we experienced some disappointment respecting the numbers of Jews interested in hearing a subject of such vital importance to them. Incidentally we learned that the Rabbis are trying to keep the people from hearing. It was ever thus. The teachers take away the key of knowledge, and neither enter in themselves nor permit others to enter, if they can prevent it.
The spirit of Judaism is marked today, as it was in the Master's day, by a subserviency to the elders and traditions --very much the same as with Christians. How much the overseers of the religious world will be obliged to answer for respecting the ignorance of the people and their estrangement from the truth!
Prof. J. T. Read of the Chicago Class contributed greatly to the interest at all the meetings by leading the music, and also by singing solos while the audience gathered. At Kansas City Prof. Riggs and wife also assisted, adding much to the pleasure of the services. The total attendance of interested ones was about six hundred.
Following one of these meetings, by request, we had a service for the consecration of children. A number of parents formally presented their children in consecration to the Lord. We made clear to all that there is no Scriptural command governing this matter. The basis of our innovation is the fact that the Jews in general were accustomed to consecrate their male children to the Lord by circumcision, and the parents of Samuel the Prophet made consecration of him to the Divine service.
Many Protestants practise infant sprinkling, called baptism, not as a saving ordinance, nor as an induction into the church, but as an act of public consecration to the Lord. We reminded the friends also that when certain parents brought their children to Jesus, he said, "Permit little children to come unto me, and forbid them not, for of such like is the Kingdom." That is to say, those acceptable to the Lord as joint-heirs of Messiah's Kingdom will all be child-like, simple, trustful, obedient children of God.
We suggested to the parents that such a formal offering to the Lord of the fruits of their bodies should, in after days, help them to accept whatever Divine providences might come to their children, with more loving submission.
We suggested further that as the children grow to years of discernment, it may be helpful to them to know that their parents had thus devoted them to God and His service of righteousness. We recalled our own experience, that when about seven years of age our mother told us, "Charles, I want you to know that I gave you to the Lord, as Samuel's mother gave him. It is my hope and prayer that in God's providence you may become a minister of the Gospel." We recall the impression made upon us, and our reply at the time: "Ma, I think that when I grow up I shall prefer to be a missionary to the poor heathen. The people here have many preachers, have many churches, while the poor heathen have few."
Our mother made no remark, but as we look at the matter now, her prayer is being fulfilled in our present opportunities for ministering to the "household of faith," and our own proposition to help the heathen will also have realization in the blessed Messianic Kingdom. About fifteen children were consecrated, by prayer, laying on of the hand and the invocation of Divine blessing. We made clear that none should think of this matter as an obligation, merely as an opportunity for such as desire to avail themselves of it.
ONE DAY AT WICHITA
We had a very enjoyable experience at Wichita. A goodly number had gathered from surrounding places, and with our own party made up an audience of about four hundred for the Thursday afternoon meeting, when we talked to the interested. Of course, we had a good season of spiritual fellowship. The attendance in the evening was estimated at one thousand. We had remarkable attention, and believe that surely some grains of wheat will be found as a result. Here also, following the afternoon discourse to the interested, a number of parents presented their children in consecration to the Lord --about 12.
ONE DAY AT PUEBLO, COLO.
Another night-ride brought us to Pueblo Friday, June 16. We had two good meetings here--one for the interested in the afternoon, at which about three hundred were present, and one for the public in the evening, the attendance being about a thousand. The resident class is a very small one, and the numbers from the outside were comparatively few, but all seemed to have the spirit of the Truth. The dear friends who arranged the meeting here manifested great zeal and courage, the Lord greatly blessing their efforts. The public meeting was attended by some very intelligent people, who seemed deeply interested in the things they heard respecting the better Hereafter--the two salvations.
SATURDAY AT COLORADO SPRINGS
We arrived here early and had a good day. In the morning a testimony meeting; in the afternoon a symposium, participated in by twelve brethren. Following this, by request, we had the service for the Consecration of children--about twenty participating. The public service in the evening was specially large for Saturday. The audience was estimated at from twelve to fifteen hundred. We had excellent attention. The close attention, the earnest faces and desire for free literature at the close of the service are hopeful indications as respects the Truth here.
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THE CHURCH'S SHARE IN THE SIN-OFFERING
THE MERIT of Christ consisted in His keeping of the Law and in His obedience to the Father in the laying down of His life. That life which He laid down was the price. It was placed in the hands of Justice when He died--"Father, into Thy hands I commit My Spirit." All passed into the hands of the Father and it remains in the hands of the Father--a Ransom-price. When God raised our Lord from the dead He did not raise Him a human being, but a spirit being of the highest order.
As the Scriptures declare of the Church, so it is true of the Head of the Church, for we follow in His footsteps. Of the Church it is written, "It is sown in dishonor, it is raised in glory; it is sown in weakness, it is raised in power; it is sown a natural body, it is raised a spiritual body." (`I Cor. 15:42-45`.) Our Lord was raised a quickening, a life-giving spirit. (`I Cor. 15:45`; `I Pet. 3:18`.) It was a man who forfeited his life; it was a man also who gave Himself a price in offset. (`I Cor. 15:21,22`.) The sacrifice of our Lord's human nature remained a sacrifice on behalf of the world. Has He given it to the world yet? No. What has He done with it? Merely
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committed it to the Father. To whose credit is it now? To our Lord's credit. Where? In the hands of Divine Justice. For what object? That it may be applied. How applied?
First of all, in an imputative sense, in this Gospel Age, it is applied to all those who come unto the Father through Him. He imputes it to these after they have turned to the Father in faith and have come to the point where they can say, "I present my body a living sacrifice"; "Here, Lord, I give myself away." There the great Advocate, the future Mediator for the world, imputes to them enough of His merit to make their sacrifice good. They, of themselves, have nothing to offer that God could accept; for, "There is none righteous; no, not one." --`Rom. 3:10`.
Here the great Advocate applies, or imputes, a sufficiency of His merit, already in the hands of Justice, to make these perfect in the sight of Justice. Divine Justice can then accept the sacrifice; and the acceptance of the sacrifice is manifested by the impartation of the Holy
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Spirit, the begetting of the Spirit; and that which is begotten of the Spirit will, in the resurrection, be born of the Spirit, unless in the meantime there be something to paralyze, or vitiate, the condition. If one thus begotten of the Spirit lose the spirit, become dead to spiritual things, then he is indeed "twice dead," as the Apostle says.--`Jude 12`.
DOES THE CHURCH SHARE IN THE SIN-OFFERING?
But now, in the case of those who are thus accepted of Christ, what have they to do with the Sin-Offering? We answer that we should not know what they have to do if God did not show us; but God first makes a picture of the matter in the Old Testament. He made, with the Jews, a typical Day of Atonement, which prefigured what will be done during this Gospel Age and during the period of Messiah's reign. What is this? It is the work of reconciliation between God and men. How did the type show this? The Day of Atonement had various features. It began with the offering of a bullock; and that bullock represented the offering of the Lord Jesus Christ on behalf of the Church. The blood of the bullock was sprinkled upon the Mercy Seat for the household of faith. The household of faith was represented in the two goats.
These goats represented you and me and all of God's people who have offered their bodies living sacrifices, holy and acceptable. (`Rom. 12:1,2`; `Heb. 13:11-13`.) Only one of these goats became a follower of the bullock and had experiences exactly the same as the experiences of the bullock. This goat represents that class of believers who daily follow in the footsteps of Jesus and who are partakers with Him of His sufferings at the present time and will have a share with Him in the glory to follow.
The other goat represents the class which does not go voluntarily to sacrifice, but which, without turning to sin, fails to make a willing sacrifice. Therefore this class is treated as the "scapegoat" and dealt with accordingly, being driven into the wilderness condition for tribulation. The Apostle seems to refer to this class when he says that some are thus dealt with "that their spirits may be saved in the day of the Lord Jesus." (`I Cor. 5:5`.) These are not the Bride class, but a servant class.
In the `45th Psalm` we have the picture of the Heavenly Bridegroom and can see how He introduces His Bride to the Heavenly Father, the great King. Next follows the picture of the Bride, who is described as "all glorious within," and who is to be brought unto the Heavenly King in fine needlework and wrought gold. Then we have a third picture, "The virgins, her companions that follow her," and who also shall be brought unto the King. These represent the other class, the "scapegoat" class, who do not voluntarily go into death, into sacrifice, and who, consequently, cannot be counted in as members of the Bride.
Because the Scriptures show this Sin-Offering, therefore, we believe in the Sin-Offering; and because the Scriptures tell us that we are to be sharers in this matter, therefore we believe it. Where does the Apostle so state? We answer that he says to us, addressing us as the "Lord's goat" class, "Let us go forth unto Him without the camp, bearing the reproach with Him." He also says that the bodies of those beasts whose blood was brought into the Most Holy to make atonement for sin, were all burned outside the camp. (`Heb. 13:11-13`.) What beasts were those? Only the two. The bullock and the Lord's goat were the only ones. The Apostle urges that we were represented by this goat. "Let us, therefore, go forth unto Him without the camp." All that was done with the bullock was done with the goat. Let us, then, if we would walk in His steps, share with Him in His sacrifice--"Go to Him without the camp, bearing His reproach with Him"; for "If we suffer with Him we shall also reign with Him"; we shall be glorified together.-- `2 Tim. 2:11,12`.
DOES THE CHURCH ADD TO THE SIN-OFFERING?
The question may be asked, "What does the Church add to the Sin-Offering if the Lord gave the necessary per cent. of His merit to each to make his or her sacrifice possible?" We answer that it depends upon what thought is behind the expression "add to the Sin-Offering." THE SIN-OFFERING NEEDED NO ADDITION. The sinner was a man--Adam. Our Lord left His glory and became a man in order that He might redeem man. When a perfect man's life was given for the other perfect man who sinned, it constituted a sufficiency, or as the Scriptures express it, a Ransom-Price.
This word "Ransom" (`I Tim. 2:6`), in the Greek (anti-lutron) signifies a price, as an equivalent; a satisfactory price. Consequently there is no addition needed to the Ransom which our Lord gave and nothing could be added to it, for we cannot add to that which is already complete. If the price of an article is $1 and you add $25 to it, you are not really adding anything to the price, for the price is only $1, and the other dollars added on neither affect the price nor are necessary, in any sense of the word.
There is another sense, however, in which the Church has a share with her Lord; namely, Not only was our Lord Himself the Ransom-Price for the world, but in order that He might be highly exalted and receive the reward of the divine nature, it was necessary that He should die. So, then, the death of Christ effected two things; first, it was the Ransom-Price for mankind; second, it was the condition upon which He would obtain His glorious reward--the divine nature. If He had not been obedient even unto death, then He would not have been highly exalted.
As the Apostle says, "And being found in fashion as a man, He humbled Himself and became obedient unto death, even the death of the cross. Wherefore [on which account] God also hath highly exalted Him and given Him a Name which is above every name." (`Phil. 2:8,9`.) He could not, therefore, have been exalted to that high position except by obedience unto death--obedience to His covenant. Had He failed to carry out His covenant of sacrifice, He would have failed to gain His glorious reward, and also failed to be a satisfactory price for
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mankind. But He did not fail. He attained the prize of the "high calling" to the divine nature.
There is, however, an arrangement in God's Plan that takes in the Church as well as Jesus, the Head of the Body, the Head of the Church; and so the Apostle says that God foreknew us also by Jesus. (`Rom. 8:28-30`; `Eph. 1:4,9-12`.) Not that he foreknew you and me as individuals, necessarily, but that He foreknew a Church, a class; He had fore-intended the gathering of such a class, or Church, from the beginning. It is just as much a part of the Divine Plan that the Church, the Body of Christ, should be called to walk in His steps, to be dead with Him, to present their bodies living sacrifices, as it was a part of the Divine Plan from the beginning that Jesus should do these things. The difference between Jesus and the Church is that He was perfect, holy, harmless, undefiled, separate from sinners; and therefore, His death could be in the nature of a ransom-price--all that was necessary. We have no such perfection of our own; and therefore, in order to be permitted to sacrifice at all, we must first have His merit imputed to us, that we might be acceptable sacrifices on the Lord's altar.
WHY MUST THE CHURCH SACRIFICE?
Then the question comes up, What is the object of having any of these sacrifices on the altar? Why is the Church on the altar with her Lord, as expressed by the Apostle Paul (`Romans 12:1`), "I beseech you, therefore, brethren, by the mercies of God, that ye present your bodies a living sacrifice, holy, acceptable unto God, your reasonable service." Why does God invite us to be living sacrifices with Christ, since Christ is sufficient as a ransom-price for the sins of the whole world? The answer is that the Father invites us to come in and be partakers of the sufferings of Christ in order that we may also be sharers of His glory; for it is only "if we suffer with Him that we may reign with Him--if we be dead with Him, we shall live with Him."
As our Lord was called to sacrifice, so the Church is also called. If He would be found worthy, if He would have the Father's highest approval, He must leave the glory which He had with the Father and must do all the Father might require of Him. And only by so doing would He gain the reward offered. During the Gospel Age the Church is invited to enter into that covenant with Him. We who are by nature sinners, "children of wrath, even as others," are justified through His merit in order to permit us to have a share in His suffering, in His sacrifice.
What is the use of all this? Why should this be done? That is the only way that we could be with Him on the spirit plane. If we retain the human nature we can never get to heaven. None can ever go to heaven except those of the sacrificial class. Those not begotten from above will never get a share in the heavenly blessing, but will get an earthly blessing, if they get any. They will keep their earthly nature and will in due time be made perfect. But those who are now invited to become the Bride of Christ are invited to join with Him in sacrifice. Our Lord sacrificed the earthly nature and its rights. All those who wish to belong to this Bride class must sacrifice the flesh, the earthly nature, its rights, etc., that they may be sharers with Him in the Heavenly, the divine nature.
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THE VOICES OF THE THREE SIGNS
[REPUBLISHED FROM THE WATCH TOWER OF 1901 BY REQUEST.]
WHILE PREPARING the Sunday School lessons relating to Moses and his two presentations of himself to the Israelites, as their deliverer from Egyptian bondage, we noted the fact that "these things were written aforetime for our admonition upon whom the ends of the Ages are come." (`I Cor. 10:11`.) And, considering the matter from this standpoint, we perceived, as we had never done before, that the three signs by which the Israelites were convinced that God's deliverance of them was at hand, at Moses' second presentation, must have been intended to typify some corresponding three signs or testimonies at the second advent of Christ; testimonies which will be convincing to the true spiritual Israelites. In the type these three signs or testimonies preceded the plagues upon the Egyptians; and this in the antitype must mean that the three signs or testimonies to spiritual Israel respecting the second advent of our Lord and respecting the great deliverance which He is to accomplish, must precede the plagues, the great time of trouble, coming upon the world in general shortly.
At first we were perplexed, and said to ourself: "The Scriptures clearly show us that we are now 'in the days of the Son of Man'; our journal has borne as its sub-title, 'Herald of Christ's Presence,' since its institution in 1879; yet where are these three signs? Already twenty-seven years of the forty-year harvest have passed, and but thirteen remain, in the last four of which [which period we have already entered at the time of the reprinting of this article] we confidently expect the plagues upon the world --antitypical Egypt. Where are these signs or testimonies, which the type teaches us we should expect at this time, to convince all the true Israelites?"
For a time we were inclined to look for miraculous tokens, but subsequently realized that this would be out of the Lord's order, as the antitype is always on a higher and grander scale than the type: as, for instance, the typical Passover lamb but feebly foreshadowed the Lamb of God, and the great things accomplished through His sacrifice. Feeling confident of the times in which we are living ("in the parousia of the Son of Man"), we concluded that in all probability these signs had already been given, or were in process of being given, at the present time.
Still we could not recognize them, and feeling that the matter must now be to the Lord's household "meat in due season," we besought the Lord earnestly and repeatedly for light upon the subject, while continuing our studies. No light coming, we mentioned the matter to the Bible House family at the dinner table, requesting the prayers of all upon the subject, and that if any had suggestions to offer they would feel free to present them. Seemingly it was in line with the Divine purpose that we should thus come to the point of making confession of inability to solve the riddle, and that our reliance for wisdom was wholly upon the Lord; for within two hours after this acknowledgment the entire matter became clear and lucid to our mind, as we shall now endeavor to show.
Our Lord declares Moses to have been, in some particulars, in some of his transactions, a type of Himself, saying, "Moses wrote of Me." Moses himself declared, "A Prophet [Teacher] shall the Lord your God raise up unto you of your brethren, like unto me." Peter
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quotes this last expression in his sermon, and emphasizes it. (`John 5:46`; `Deut. 18:15`; `Acts 3:22`.) Moses did not typify Christ in all of his doings, however, nor was his life as a whole a type of the life of Christ. For instance, in his smiting of the rock, contrary to the Divine command, he became a type of those of Christ's followers who put Him to an open shame, and who, in consequence, will die the Second Death; and as a type of these Moses was not permitted to enter into the land of promise.-- `Num. 20:11`; `Deut. 32:51`; `Heb. 10:29`.
Moses typified Jehovah at times also; but in the present instance we are specially interested in considering his conduct with the Israelites in connection with their deliverance from the bondage of Egypt. In this type we see him distinctly as a representative of Christ Jesus. Moses was rich, a prince in high honor, learned in all the learning of his times, but for Israel's sake he renounced these, left them all, and they being bondmen, he took his place amongst them, to be their leader and deliverer. How like this is to the description given us in the Scriptures of our Lord's course! He left the glory of the heavenly condition and spiritual plane of being; He took a bondman's form and was found in fashion as a man. He came to deliver His brethren from bondage. --`Phil. 2:6-8`, Diaglott.
When Moses came to his own people they rejected him, and he fled for his life to the land of Midian, from whence he came to them a second time. So Christ came to His own, and His own received Him not (`John 1:11`); and He went into a far country, even heaven itself, from whence He has now, a second time, come, and will deliver all who are "Israelites indeed" from the bondage of sin and death.
Moses was forty years in coming to the point where he offered himself to Israel the first time; then he was absent from them an equal period of time, forty years, and came again and delivered them. There is a type or parallel in this time feature also; it illustrates the length of the Jewish and the Gospel Ages, as being equal. From the time of the beginning of typical Israel as a nation, waiting for the coming of Messiah, down to the time when Jesus actually presented Himself, was a period of 1,845 years, and from that time, when He died and left them, until the period which the Scriptures show us marked His second coming (October, 1874) was a like period of 1,845 years--corresponding exactly to the two periods at which Moses offered himself in the type.*
THE VOICE OF THE FIRST SIGN
At Moses' second presentation of himself to Israel he did not address them personally and directly, as at the first, God having said to him, "Aaron shall be thy prophet (or mouthpiece), and thou shalt be a god unto Aaron." This item of the type would seem to imply just what we see to be the fact of the case now, viz., that the Lord Jesus does not address Himself to the true Israelites in person now, as at the first advent, but through His agent, through a mouthpiece. Aaron, the mouthpiece or agent of the Lord, we understand to represent the Royal Priesthood --those of the Lord's consecrated people still in the flesh, still sacrificing--those who have not yet passed beyond the veil into glory. The type, then, seems to say that the signs or testimonies which will convince all true Israelites now living respecting the presence of the Lord and His mighty power to deliver, His ultimate victory over Satan, sin and death, will be of or from our present Lord, but by or through the living members of His Body, His brethren, represented in Aaron.
The first of the signs or testimonies to Israel was the casting of the rod upon the ground, and its becoming a serpent, and the taking of the serpent by the tail, and its becoming a rod again in the hands of Aaron. It was Moses' rod, and Aaron was merely his representative in every act. The natural Israelite merely saw this as a miracle, and discerned in it no teaching; but the spiritual Israelite is not to expect a larger rod and a larger serpent, as the antitype, but should expect to comprehend the meaning of the rod and of the serpent as an antitypical instruction or testimony today.
A rod symbolizes authority. Moses' rod was frequently used in connection with the plagues, as well as in connection with the signs, as signifying Divine authority. A serpent is a symbol of evil--of sin and all its consequences--evil in general. The lesson for the spiritual Israelite today is that he is now to understand that all the evil there is in the world is the result, directly or indirectly, of God's having let go of His rod or authority; and they are to understand further that it is God's intention or purpose, as it is also His promise, to take hold upon the present evil conditions, which have lasted now more than six thousand years, and to bring order out of confusion--to re-establish His authority in His own hand.
These acts or signs are said to have "voices" or to be testimonies. (`Exod. 4:8,9`.) Hence our query must be, Is this sign or testimony now being given to God's people throughout the world? We answer, Yes. Has it been always recognized and presented thus? We answer, No. Was it ever thus presented before this Harvest time? We answer, No. Heretofore it has been a matter of speculation amongst peoples and theologians of all classes and shades of Christian belief, but a question without an answer--Why did God permit evil in the world?
Some have blasphemously held that God has caused the evil, that good might follow; but this God Himself most emphatically denies, and everything pertaining to His character refutes it. He declares that every good and every perfect gift is of Him, with whom is no changeableness nor variableness. "His work is perfect." Others have claimed that a conflict is in operation between God and Satan, between good and evil, and that each side is doing its utmost to conquer the other--with evil and Satan predominant in the world, on account of which it is spoken of as "the present evil world," in which there is "none righteous, no, not one."
But whatever the standpoint of view, it has been confusion only, until the Harvest time, when the true light upon the subject began to shine forth, showing that when sin entered the world God gave mankind over, let them take their course, let the rod of Divine authority drop, "rested from His own work," permitting sin and evil to flourish--not, however, intending that it should flourish forever as a serpent, but fully intending, predestinating, and even foretelling, that in due time He would set up His Kingdom in the person of the Messiah who should lay hold upon that old Serpent, the Devil and Satan, and restrain his power; showing, too, that He will ultimately bring all evil conditions back to subjection and harmony with the Divine authority and law--destroying the evil connected therewith.
This teaching, then, is the sign whose "voice" or testimony was typified by Aaron's casting the rod upon the ground, its becoming a serpent, and his taking it
*STUDIES IN THE SCRIPTURES, Vol. II., Chap. VII.
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back into his hand again. How much grander the antitypical teaching than the typical sign! How much more forceful! Who of the true Israelites who has heard this testimony is any longer in doubt respecting the speedy deliverance of all of God's people from the power of Satan, sin and death?
We would avoid personality as far as possible, but believe it to be in the interest of the truth and of the true Israelites that we point out that this sign has already been given. THE WATCH TOWER AND HERALD OF CHRIST'S PRESENCE was founded in 1879, and the "voice" therefrom, to the true Israel of God, announced that the second advent of our Lord, as the Deliverer of the world, had already taken place--that He was present but invisible, a Spirit Being not possible to be seen by any, even His Church, until they should be "changed" and made like Him in the First Resurrection. The message further declared that He is present for the purpose of establishing His Kingdom, and delivering His saints and the whole groaning creation from the bondage of corruption --as many as will obey Him. And it is very remarkable that very shortly a special number of this journal was issued, bearing the significant title, "Food for Thinking Christians--Why Evil Was Permitted."
This voice or testimony was spread abroad amongst the spiritual Israelites in an extraordinary manner--over a million and a half copies being circulated through the mails and at church-doors in the United States, Canada and Great Britain. And the "voice" or testimony of this first sign, token, teaching, is still being repeated from one to another of the Lord's people throughout the world, and now in various languages. In that pamphlet, for the first time, so far as we know, was shown that the evil in the world, the bondage to sin and death, and the reign of iniquity and the various oppressions to which the whole groaning creation is subject, are the results of God's having let go His authority (rod), and not the result of His inability to hold the authority, nor in any sense the outworking of the authority in His hand. It showed also how complete will be the restraint of evil and its complete annihilation when again the Lord shall take unto Himself His great power and reign.
Could there possibly be a greater or a grander antitype for the sign which Moses and Aaron presented to Israel through the rod and the serpent? Is not the truth on this subject much more convincing to the spiritual Israelite today than any natural signs or wonders or miracles could possibly be? Does not the knowledge now granted the Lord's people respecting "The Divine Plan of the Ages," and its purpose, and the result, satisfy our longings as nothing else could do, and assure our hearts that deliverance is nigh?
THE VOICE OF THE SECOND SIGN
The second of the signs to be given to the Israelites was that of the leprous hand. Hidden in the bosom, when revealed it was leprous; but when hidden again, and revealed a second time, it was whole. Again we say that the natural Israelite discerned nothing but the natural sign, but it was intended of God that the spiritual Israelite should discern a much grander lesson, and that a testimony through this grander lesson would be still more convincing to him than was the typical sign to the typical Israelite. A hand is a symbol of power. In this case the hand represented Divine power. Leprosy is a symbol of sin. The teaching, therefore, would seem to be that Divine power was first manifested without sin or imperfection or blemish; secondly, that the same Divine power, hidden for a time, was afterward manifest in sin and imperfection; and thirdly, that the same Divine power, hidden again for a time, will subsequently be manifest without sin.
What teaching or testimony is this? We answer that it is in harmony with the previous teaching respecting the permission of evil, but does not apply to evil in general, but rather to sin in particular; does not apply to the world in general, but specially applies to the people of God--to those whom God uses as His agents or representatives, His hand, His power in the world. God's power originally was manifested unblemished. But during this Gospel Age He has been represented by His consecrated people, the members of the Body of Christ, who are His ambassadors and representatives; but they are leprous, actually imperfect, though reckonedly perfect in Christ. As the world sees them they are blemished, but from the Divine standpoint their blemishes are all hidden, covered with the merit of Christ's righteousness. Nevertheless, these have been the hand or power of God in the world for more than eighteen centuries; but by and by they are to be received into His bosom again, and "changed" in the First Resurrection, so that when manifest again in the future they will be without sin, "without spot or wrinkle or any such thing," and will again be used of the Lord as His Agent in stretching forth His rod and bringing the plagues upon Egypt, and delivering the residue of God's people from the bondage of sin and death.
And is this also a sign or a testimony peculiar to this time in which we live, and was this subject never clearly seen before? We answer, it is peculiar to our day, and was never clearly seen before. In the past many have seen something of justification, something of sanctification, something of a coming Deliverer; but never before have these subjects been seen in the clear light in which they are now seen as related to each other. Never before was the relationship distinctly seen between justification and sanctification and deliverance; that justification is of Divine grace, accepted through faith; that sanctification implies works and sacrifice, based upon justification; and that to these justified and consecrated ones, who faithfully overcome, by the grace of God in Christ, shall be granted a share in the "glory, honor and immortality" of the divine nature in the First Resurrection.
But has the voice or sign of this testimony gone forth in any particular channel, as did the preceding voice or testimony? We answer, Yes--in the SCRIPTURE STUDIES series of volumes, the first of which was published in 1886. The united testimony of these relates to the Church, showing original sin, the first step out of it into justification, through faith in Christ, the second step of sanctification, and sacrifice, and the ultimate change, in the First Resurrection, to the divine nature, and glory and joint-heirship. These volumes deal specially with this subject from its various standpoints, the Ransom-Sacrifice of our Lord, on account of which the cleansing will come to us in due time, being everywhere prominently set forth; and also the fact that no absolute purity is to be expected until the Lord shall take us to Himself in our "change."
Supplemental to the teaching of the STUDIES on this subject, and to assist in emphasizing their "voice" and making clear their testimony, the Pilgrim service has been instituted under which various brethren travel from place to place explaining and demonstrating the lesson taught by the leprous hand and its healing, and all of our readers, having heard the testimony, are daily giving it forth to others.
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THE VOICE OF THE THIRD SIGN
Another sign was to be given, the Lord clearly intimating that it would be necessary, and that not all of His true people would hear or heed the "voice" of the first two testimonies. To natural Israel the third sign was the taking of the water from the river, and pouring it upon the earth, where it became blood. They saw merely the sign, the miracle; they read not its meaning, as the spiritual Israelite must seek to do. In explanation of the symbolical teaching of this type we suggest that water is here, as elsewhere, a symbol of the truth; and that the earth is here, as elsewhere, a symbol of society.*
The pouring of the water upon the earth would ordinarily mean the refreshment of the earth, a blessing; and the pouring of the truth upon society would ordinarily be expected to mean a blessing to society; but in the symbol the water turned to blood, repulsive, abhorrent, symbolizing death; and this, in the antitype, would signify that in the present time the pouring out of the truth upon society will produce an effect contrary to what might ordinarily have been expected. Society, civilization, has been claiming, especially within the past century, to be searching high and low for the truth. But this type says that the time has come when these professed truthseekers (the word science signifies truth) will reject the truth, disdain it, and to them it will seem obnoxious, loathsome, intolerable.
Readers of THE WATCH TOWER will here possibly call to mind our Lord's words respecting this present time, "The sun shall be darkened and the moon shall be turned into blood." We have elsewhere shown the significance of this:+ that the moon is the symbol of the Jewish Law, as the sun is the symbol of the Gospel message; and that the Gospel message will become darkness to the eyes of society in general, through the sophistries, Higher Criticism, Evolution theories, etc., of this boastful day; while the Law, represented by the moon, will be viewed as bloody--that its sacrifices will not be esteemed as types, nor appreciated as such, but be regarded as the work of misguided Jews, who slaughtered their animals by the thousands because of their ignorance and superstition, and that the commands which they obeyed were not of God, but of their own conjecture and of priestly connivance. The same thought attaches to this sign or testimony of the water of truth being poured upon the social earth. It will be resented, as bloody, instead of being absorbed as truth.
Is there any thing corresponding to this sign now in progress in the world, that could be esteemed a sign or testimony to the true Israelites, such as never was before given? We answer, Yes, there is. A very remarkable movement has been in progress amongst us during the past ten years, during which the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society has supplied tracts and papers free in any quantity to those who would promise to use them judiciously. You have the annual reports, showing the millions of pages which have thus been circulated--the truth being thus poured upon the symbolical earth, society, liberally, in many lands and in many languages. But especially has this pouring out of the water, truth, progressed wonderfully during the past three years, under what we have designated the "volunteer" work, in which hundreds of the Lord's consecrated people have systematically, season after season, distributed to Christian people, papers and booklets which our Society has supplied freely--the donations covering the expense coming in without urging or even request.
But what is the effect of this pouring out of the water upon the most enlightened peoples of the world, professed truth-seekers? Is it gladly received, joyfully absorbed? Only by the few--the vast majority seem to be angered, as the Scribes and Pharisees and Doctors of Divinity at the first advent were angered when they perceived that the Lord and the Apostles were teaching the people, and that without money and without price. (`Acts 4:2`.) Nothing can be more evident than that the professed teachers of Christendom do not want to be taught themselves and do not want the people to be taught the truth. They bitterly oppose it, and persecute and speak evil of those who in this way are seeking to do good. More and more they are getting so changed from the simplicity of the Gospel of Christ to the theory of Evolution and Higher Criticism and sectarian pride and worldliness that the truth seems repulsive to them, undesirable, bloody. They not only view the typical sacrifices as bloody, but they resent the thought that the antitypical sacrifice for sins was the death of Christ--they resent the thought that Divine Justice required this sacrifice, and that "without the shedding of blood there is no remission of sins," as the Apostle declared. (`Heb. 9:22`.) It does not fit with their theories.
According to their theories man was created next to the monkey, and has been evolving as a race grandly, up to the present time, and will continue to evolve and develop until he becomes a god, and hence needs only to be let alone; he needs no Savior, no Deliverer from the present condition of things, which are not seen to be evil. They put evil for good, and good for evil, darkness for light, and light for darkness. To these the Truth of God's Word respecting the fall, respecting the Ransom, respecting the coming deliverance and restitution blessings which God has provided in Christ, through the Millennial Kingdom for all the families of the earth-- these are all objectionable, contradictory to their theories, hateful, bloody.
As the "voice" of the third sign or testimony was to bring conviction to all of the true typical Israelites, so in the antitype this last testimony or evidence will ultimately bring conviction to all of the Lord's true people in the world today. They will discern that the systems and theologians in whom they have trusted are going farther and farther, day by day, away from the appreciation of the true Gospel--the truth as it is in Christ Jesus--into the outer darkness of the world. All who are loyal to the Lord, as they perceive this condition of things, as they recognize the cleavage between belief and unbelief, from the Scriptural standpoint, will thus be helped, convinced, and enabled to take their stand for the truth accordingly.
It will be remembered that when Moses and Aaron presented themselves before Pharaoh they performed the first of these signs in his presence--the rod turned into a serpent, and being reclaimed was a rod. Pharaoh called for his magicians (types of theologians of today, whose minds, not morals, have become corrupted, and who are reprobates, not morally, but as respects the faith.--`2 Tim. 3:8`). He explained to them that Moses and Aaron claimed that this sign was an evidence of Divine power and favor, and asked them if they could not show the same evidences. They replied, Yes, and cast their rods upon the ground, and their rods also became serpents; but Aaron's rod-serpent swallowed up all of these. What did this signify? It might mean that so far as the world is concerned the first sign or testimony which convinced the Hebrews will be claimed to be nothing new; it will be claimed that theologians all along have declared and
*STUDIES IN THE SCRIPTURES, Vol. I, pp. 66-71. +STUDIES IN THE SCRIPTURES, Vol. IV, pp. 590-594.
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thought that God blesses evil things, so that they result in good. But we answer that the view of this subject which God has now displayed to His people is so much more complete that it quite swallows up all these suggestions and theories of the past. What the Lord is now showing proves to His people conclusively, not only that some accidents are overruled of the Lord for good, but that all evil of every kind is the result of absence of Divine control, and that when the Lord shortly shall put forth His hand, and again take control of earth's affairs, its evil conditions will give place to conditions in accord with the Divine character and authority.
It will be remembered, also, that the first plague which came upon the Egyptians was the turning of all the water of Egypt into blood--the river, ponds, etc.--so that the Egyptians could not drink of the water, but digged for themselves wells near the river. As the water represents truth, the thought here conveyed would be that from the worldly standpoint very soon all truth will become repulsive--every feature of truth connected with the Divine Plan, as represented in the Word of God, will become abhorrent; and the digging of wells would seem to imply that, rejecting the Word of God, the world (Christendom--Churchianity) will seek for truth in various ways of their own.
WHAT SHALL WE SAY TO THESE THINGS?
It should be a great encouragement to us all to find so clearly expressed in the type what we had vaguely and indistinctly hoped would be expressed, viz., that the Lord's people of the Royal Priesthood on this side the veil are being used of Him in various ways in the accomplishment of His purpose of separating the people of God from others--the wheat from the tares. It is remarkable in this connection that none but the consecrated have ever been successful in connection with the circulation of any of these testimonies. Of the more than a million copies of SCRIPTURE STUDIES now (1901 A.D.) in circulation remarkably few have been circulated by any but those who are believers in their testimony, and who have circulated them through a desire to be instruments and mouthpieces of the Lord in giving forth His Word--even as was Aaron to Moses.
Let us, then, dear brethren and sisters, feel encouraged as, looking into the type, we see so clear a fulfilment in our day of the things written aforetime for our admonition. Let us with fresh courage show forth to all whom we have any reason to believe are "Israelites indeed" the secret of the Divine Plan--Why Evil Was Permitted. Let us prosecute also the work of showing them respecting the hand, the instrumentalities which God has used during this Gospel Age in this service; respecting the justification which covers, in God's sight, though it does not transform us in the sight of men, pointing out also the final victory of the consecrated. Let us persuade the First-Born of Israel to faithfulness until our "change" comes, when we shall be made like the Lord and fit to be His servants and representatives. Let us continue also to pour out the water of truth, whether others hear or whether they forbear. The Lord's assurance is that this sign, this testimony and its contrary results, ultimately shall influence all "Israelites indeed." Let us remember that the opposition of the worldly, even, will prove to be a co-operative influence, in deciding for the Israelites indeed that the Deliverer and the deliverance are at hand. And finally let us apply to ourselves the Lord's assurance to Moses respecting himself and Aaron, "Certainly I will be with thee."
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PROVIDING FOR ONE'S NATURAL HOUSEHOLD
"If any provide not for his own, and especially those of his own house [margin, kindred], he hath denied the faith and is worse than an unbeliever."--`1 Tim. 5:8`.
THIS PASSAGE may be properly paraphrased thus: He who provides not for those dependent upon him, especially those of his own household, hath denied the faith and is worse than an unbeliever.
This relates primarily to a Christian husband and his duty toward his wife and his children. If the husband should cease to provide for the wife, cease to cherish her and, on the contrary, should desert her, either in heart, in affection, or actually, it would imply that he had seriously departed from the Lord, from the guidance of the Spirit, and from "The wisdom that cometh from above, which is first pure, then peaceable, gentle, and easy to be entreated, full of mercy and good fruits."
Under these circumstances we could not consider such an one approved of the Lord as an "overcomer," until after reformation. Then, too, every parent owes it to his child to give him more of a start in life than merely the imperfect, dying little body born into the world. Having brought children into the world, it becomes the duty of parents to see to their reasonable establishment in it. This includes not only the dispensing of food and raiment during childhood and youth, but also the provision of intellectual and moral instructions, to which we have more than once referred; and all this means laying up, aside from personal consumption, in the interest of the children.
Seeing the uncertainties of life, it would not be an unreasonable application of the Scriptural injunction for the parent to have something laid up for the necessities of his family in the event of his death before they had reached maturity. It is not our thought that the Apostle meant that parents should seek to lay up fortunes for their children to quarrel over and be injured by. The child fairly well born and who receives a reasonable education and guidance to maturity is well off and has a rich legacy in himself; and the parent who has made such provision for his children has every reason to feel that he has been ruled in the matter by a sound mind, the Holy Spirit, the disposition approved by the Lord, even though he leave no property to his family, or not more than a shelter or home. Such a man has discharged his stewardship; and such children will be sure in the end to appreciate his faithfulness.
We should manifest an interest in those related to us by ties of blood more than in mankind in general. If the Spirit of the Lord leads us to be kind and gracious toward humanity in general, it would imply that our sentiments toward our relatives should be specially considered by us and be, to the extent of our opportunities, helpful. Nevertheless, it would not be wise, according to our judgment, nor in harmony with the instructions of the Scriptures, nor in accord with the examples which they set before us of our Lord's conduct and the conduct of the Apostles, for us to extend a very special fellowship to our earthly relatives; or to receive them and treat them better than, or even as well as, we would treat the household of faith.
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We here make an exception of such close relationships as would have a demand upon us in accord with the Apostle's words, "He that provideth not for his own, ...hath denied the faith." In general--outside of the exceptions above--we are to apply the Apostle's words, "As we have opportunity let us do good unto all men, especially unto those who are of the household of faith." (`Gal. 6:10`.) Next to the household of faith should come our more distant relatives.
Of course, from the standpoint of the New Creation, the new relationship, the members of the Body of Christ would be members of our own household, and their temporalities would be in some measure our responsibility. We are, however, living in a time not the same as that in which our Lord lived; now, there are public charities; for this reason this passage would not apply with the same force as when the Apostle spoke these words. One would be making proper provisions, sometimes, when he paid his share of the taxes toward the general weal; and it might, perhaps, be necessary to avail himself of a share in those benefits, either on his own account later, or on account of some of his own friends--members of his family.
BUILDING ONE ANOTHER UP IN THE HOLY FAITH
Christ is the Head of His own household. He does not intend that His people shall be unnecessarily burdensome to each other, but each should feel a responsibility in respect to others and gladly lend a helping hand to strengthen, encourage and bless, "building each other up in the most holy faith." It evidently was the intention of our Lord to draw together His followers as a new family, a new household, the "household of faith." Hence, we find the repeated injunction and encouragement for mutual fellowship, mutual helpfulness and regular association, with the promise that where two or three meet in the Lord's name He will be specially present with them to grant a blessing; and that His people should not forget the assembling of themselves together.
Returning to our text we note that the Apostle says that one neglecting his obligations to his own family would be denying the faith. The faith that we profess is not merely a faith in certain things that we are getting, but it affects also matters of propriety, our character, all of life's affairs in general. We profess to love God more than others love Him. We profess to love our neighbor as ourselves. We profess to take this as our standard. If a man's responsibility to his neighbor is that he love him as himself, then this would bear in with double force as to his own family. If one is derelict there, he is misrepresenting
the doctrines of Christ which he professes. To live contrary to the doctrines one professes would be to deny his faith. And so one who would live in violation of these recognized standards of life would be living below the world instead of above the world.
As for denying the faith, the thought is that there would be a lack of love, of sympathy, regarding the interests of the ones neglected and, therefore, a denying of the faith to that extent. What a perfect example of unselfishness we have in our Master, who, when in the greatest of trouble and anguish, was thinking sympathetically of others! We notice His provision for the welfare of His mother, whom He consigned to the care of the loving John, thus showing our Lord's approval of the noble characteristics displayed by John in pressing near to his Master in this trying hour!
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RETRIBUTIVE DISCIPLINE OF THE MILLENNIUM
SO FAR AS Divine Justice is concerned, God's provision is that all claims against mankind on the part of Justice shall be settled and closed in the end of this Gospel Age. This is represented in the typical sin-atonement, the satisfaction for sins. The antitypical Atonement Day witnesses the sacrifices of The Christ and the preparation of those worthy to become members of His Body. When Justice shall have accepted that satisfaction, it will clear the books and deliver Adam and all his race from all responsibility accruing from the violation of God's Law by the eating of the forbidden fruit. The death of Jesus is the satisfaction for the sins resulting from the original Adamic sin.
But there have been other sins, flagrant wrongs, for which Justice would demand retribution, sins against the Holy Spirit, against light. All of these are sins against God, against righteousness. To illustrate, consider the Lord's experience: It may be that the rabble were not responsible for the crucifixion of our Lord; but there were individuals who had sufficiency of light to have done better. So from the days of Abel to the present time some have suffered gross injustice, and the cries of these violations of Justice appeal to God, just as the blood of Abel cried out. The Scriptures show us how satisfaction will be made also for these before the opening of the great Day of blessing, before the world is turned over fully into the hands of the Mediator of the Kingdom.
The satisfaction for these wilful sins is shown in the picture of the scapegoat. There we see in type how the "great company" will be caused to pass through tribulation, which will have a good effect upon themselves and which will, at the same time, be the means of squaring up accounts for gross violations of Justice outside of Adamic sin. The putting of the hands of the high priest upon the head of the scapegoat pictures the placing of these sins upon the "great company" class and the sending of them into tribulation. These will pass through an experience similar to that which our Lord foretold would come upon the Jewish nation, and which was literally fulfilled. Our Lord states that those horrible sufferings at the end of the Jewish Age were to be a squaring up for sins against Divine Justice--for various misdeeds of previous times. (`Luke 11:49-51`.) This will leave the world at the opening of the Millennium without anything against them on the books of Justice.
THE DISCIPLINES ACCORDING TO PREVIOUS
Then Justice will transfer the whole world of mankind into the hands of Messiah, who will take them just as they are. They will be in various conditions. Some will be more depraved, others less depraved; some will be more seared in their consciences and some less; and these deficiencies of character will depend upon the way in which each one accepted or rejected light and opportunity in the present time. Those who knew not His will and did it not will receive few stripes; those who knew His will and did it not will receive many stripes, because of previous hardening of character. Everybody will be required, eventually, to come up to the full standard of Divine requirements. Those more depraved will have greater difficulty and those less depraved will have less difficulty and receive fewer stripes, in the coming up to Divine requirements.
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In other words, every wrong deed, every wrong principle acted upon, has an evil effect upon character, as all right doing brings blessing. So mankind, in proportion as they have in this life obeyed or disobeyed privilege or knowledge, enjoyed and understood, will be elevated or degraded in character when they enter the next Age.
The Apostle says that God is not slack (slow) as men count slackness, but is long-suffering and patient (`2 Pet. 3:9`); and "He knows how to reserve the ungodly until the Day of Judgment to be punished." (`2 Pet. 2:9`.) Again we read, "Some men's sins are open, going beforehand to judgment, and others they follow after. (`I Tim. 5:24`.) That is to say, there are people who do wrong and receive promptly the punishment for their wrong course. Thus they have opportunity of improving upon the past.
There are others who seem to do well, seem to prosper in earthly things; their eyes stand out with fatness; they seem to go unheeded in their wrong course, down to the very tomb. (`Psa. 73:3-12`.) Will these escape? We answer, "No." In the Day of Judgment they will get their lesson. In that Day of trial they will have much more difficulty than will those who have learned lessons from the tribulations of the present life. A man who has practised evil will require severe discipline before he will learn that the customs of the past will not be allowed. Since this New Order will be such that nothing will be allowed to hinder it, his course in this life, therefore, will then receive retribution, in the sense that it will be the result of his wrong condition.
We all have noticed that some children have been born with a mark that is very humiliating to them; and many of these, by reason of having the lip of scorn turned toward them, have thereby been made humble-minded and beautiful characters. On the other hand, spoiled children who have had their own way have constituted saws and files in the world and have made trouble for others. These, not having learned lessons of self-control in the present life, will be proportionately disadvantaged in the future, and must then learn these lessons.
The question has been asked, will the Decalogue be revived in the Messianic Kingdom? We see no reason why it should not be made the Law of the Kingdom. There was no fault to be found with the Law, but with the weakness, the inability of those who were under the Law. The Ten Commandments were not given to the Church, but the spirit of them is comprehended in the word Love, which is the Law of the New Creation. (`Rom. 13:8-10`.) It would be rather incongruous for the Lord to say to the Church, Thou shalt not steal, Thou shalt not kill; for they would have passed from every such condition of mind before they could become His.
With the world, at the beginning of the New Age, it would be a Law quite over their heads to say, You shall love everybody. They would need to have some simple statements such as, Thou shalt have no other gods but Me; thou shalt not steal; thou shalt not murder; thou shalt not bear false witness. The Decalogue is the very best Law for the world of mankind. We cannot improve on the wisdom of the Law-Giver who gave this Law to Moses in the beginning. It will not surprise us, therefore, if the Ten Commandments will be put upon the whole world, just as they were upon the Jews; and that mankind will be shown that the spirit of the Law is Love; but that they will come gradually to the understanding of this principle; for at the beginning they would not have the proper appreciation of the matter.
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PROPHESY SMOOTH THINGS
--`JEREMIAH 26`.--AUGUST 6.--
"The Lord is my Light and my Salvation;
whom shall I fear?"--`Psa. 27:1`.
OUR LAST STUDY related to the time of King Josiah and his reformation. At about that time the Prophet Jeremiah began to speak in the name of the Lord. Josiah was succeeded by his son, who proved himself another bad son of a good father. And, by the way, we remark here that between the ages of twelve and eighteen would appear to be the time when the majority of boys reach some mental decision respecting the future which has much to do with their after lives. So far as we remember, the majority of notably great men have confessed to the reaching of decision of character during this period. Likewise it is said that the majority of criminals take their start in evil-doing at this early age.
It has been remarked also that the disturbance in Russia leading up to the Douma was largely the work of young people, pupils in the higher schools, male and female. We urge again upon parents and guardians the importance of this period in human life and the wisdom of giving proper care and counsel that the blossoming manhood and womanhood may be directed in proper channels, that they may become a blessing to themselves and all with whom they come in contact.
PROPHECY AGAINST JERUSALEM
Under the evil rule of King Jehoiakim, Jeremiah, under the Lord's guidance, foretold the coming destruction of the city and temple. The effect of such a prophecy should have led the people to self-examination, prayer and fasting, and a full return to loyalty to God. But according to Jeremiah's account it was a time of great moral delinquency. He pictures a terrible condition of the people--a prevalence of dishonesty, of slander, murder, adultery, false swearing and open licentiousness.
The priests led the people in an angry attack upon the Prophet. He was arrested, charged with speaking evil
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of his city, in declaring its forthcoming destruction. How foolish! Could merely the Prophet's declaration bring the thing to pass? And if he were the Lord's Prophet could their assault upon him turn aside the Divine intention? But the spirit of sin is not the spirit of a sound mind, as is the Spirit of the Lord.
It is noteworthy that it was the priests and the false prophets who, on this occasion, called for the death of a true Prophet. And alas! this has not infrequently been the case. Nearly all the persecutions of Jesus and His Apostles and His followers throughout the Age have come from professed servants of God. What heart searching this should bring to everyone of us lest, peradventure, we should be similarly overtaken in a fault and "be found fighting against God," and should bring upon ourselves severe condemnation. No doubt these religious teachers twisted their reasoning faculties to such an extent that they considered their course a just one-- possibly they even thought that it was love on their part for the people; or perhaps they persuaded themselves that they were moved in their persecution, not by hatred, envy, malice, but by love for God. At all events their course shows what an easy matter self-deception is, and
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their mistake bids us beware and scrutinize carefully our own conduct.
As Jeremiah told them of the time of trouble nearing, so some of God's people today are declaring that the greatest time of trouble ever known in the world's history is probably but a few years off--that it will mean the most terrible anarchy, the only relief from which will be the establishment of Messiah's Kingdom in power and great glory. And there are some today so foolish as to think that the trouble can be put off or avoided altogether by silencing those who call attention to the Word of the Lord. (`Daniel 12:1`.) Let us not be found fighting against God. He is mighty and will prevail, and all of His purposes, He assures us, will surely be accomplished.
Jeremiah impressed the jurors--the princes of his people. He reaffirmed every word that he had uttered and declared himself ready to die if need be; but he urged reformation. The princes, more just than the priests and false prophets, acquitted Jeremiah, although his words condemned them. So it has been at various times in the history of the truth. If it had not been for the moderation of the civil power many a reformer would have been put to death. Note, for instance, Martin Luther's protection by the Landgrave of Hesse.
REFORMER ANTHONY COMSTOCK
So today. For years Mr. Anthony Comstock has been fighting valiantly, almost single handed, along the lines of social purity. Realizing to what an extent vice is spread by vile pictures and by vile literature, this man has given much of his life to their suppression. How much good he has accomplished no one in this life may ever know; how many boys and girls have been shielded no one may know; but all the same a noble man has fought a noble fight against impurity. Of course, such a man, or any man who stands for truth and righteousness, is sure to have enemies and malicious slanderers who would gladly see him dead. It is said that Mr. Comstock has effected the destruction of many hundred pounds of vile, moral-poisoning literature and many thousand pounds of electro-plate matter prepared to print more.
All cannot be reformers and prophets of righteousness to the same extent as Jeremiah, Luther and Comstock. Every child of God, however, faithful to his consecration, is a servant of righteousness and, proportionately, should be a foe to sin in its every form. Such must be prepared for the finger of scorn and the lip of sarcasm and slander. Such may take to themselves our text and rejoice saying, "The Lord is my Light and my Salvation; whom shall I fear!"
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DESTROYING GOD'S WORD
--AUGUST 13.--`JEREMIAH 36`.--
"The Word of our God shall stand forever."--`Isa. 40:8`.
THE PROPHET JEREMIAH was shut up in prison. The disaster upon the kingdom had, to some extent, awakened the people to a slight repentance, in which the king joined, yet it was a repentance from fear rather than heart repentance. The king had enmity against Jeremiah because the Divine Message came through him. He seems to have hoped to restrain the Prophet from further proclamation of the coming trouble through fear. However, the Lord directed the Prophet to write out all of his prophecies on a scroll, after the ancient style, in columns. Jeremiah dictated and Baruch served him as amanuensis.
By the Lord's direction this book of Jeremiah was to be read to all the people at the temple on the occasion of a general gathering for worship and repentance. Since the Prophet himself could not go, he directed Baruch, who took the scroll and read it in the hearing of the people. Its prophecies of dire disaster made a deep impression. One of the princes of the people was present and heard the reading and reported to others of the king's counselors. They sent for Baruch and had him read it before them all. They, also, were deeply impressed and concluded that it should be brought before the king. But, meantime, Baruch and Jeremiah were hidden, the probability of the king's displeasure being great.
Hearing of the manuscript the king was anxious to have it read before him by a scribe. During the reading, as two or three columns of the manuscript were read, the king cut them off with a pen-knife and threw them into the fire, until the entire manuscript was read and destroyed. By the Lord's direction Jeremiah dictated his prophecies afresh, Baruch again acting as amanuensis, and this edition was made still more complete than the former. Amongst other things it included the Divine edict that none of Jehoiakim's posterity should ever sit upon the throne of David.
GOD'S WORD INDESTRUCTIBLE
Thomas Paine, Voltaire and Ingersoll imagined that they had made the Word of God to appear so ridiculous that it would never more have influence amongst men. Robert Ingersoll is quoted as having said: "In ten years the Bible will not be read." How little the poor man knew on the subject!
The frontispiece of a well-known Wyckliffe Bible pictures Satan and others, religious and irreligious, blowing with all their might to put out a light. In proportion as they exhausted their energy the light burned the more brightly.
The story is told respecting the Tyndale Bible which illustrates the point we are making, namely the impossibility of extinguishing God's Word. Tyndale, while at the University of Cambridge, England, devoted much of his life energy to the translation of the Bible. He remarked to an opponent: "If God spare my life, ere many years I shall cause a boy that driveth the plow to know more of the Scriptures than thou dost."
Tyndale's project of publishing the Bible in the English language was so seriously opposed in England that he removed to German cities, and in the year 1525 A.D. his translation of the New Testament was issued. Copies of it poured into England. The Bishop of London was so opposed that he collected and burned as many copies as he could at St. Paul's Cross in London. Yet more copies came. He could not destroy them. The Bishop collected monies wherewith to buy up the whole edition. The purchase was entrusted to a merchant named Parkington, who went to Germany and purchased the books.
Addressing Tyndale he said: "William, I know thou art a poor man and hast an heap of New Testaments and books by thee, and I have now gotten a merchant which with ready money will buy all thou hast." Tyndale inquired, "Who is this merchant?" Mr. Parkington answered, "The Bishop of London." "Oh!" said Tyndale, "that is because he will burn them." "Yes, he will," said
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Parkington. Tyndale was glad, because thus he could get out of debt, and he said: "The world will cry out against the burning of God's Word." The money from the same enabled Tyndale to get out a new edition with errors corrected and much better than the one that was burned.
BETTER INTERPRETATIONS OPPOSED
Although we have passed the day when any would attempt to destroy the Bible, we have not passed the day of opposition to the Truth. Satan would fain have the people of God worship the Book rather than study and appreciate its contents. In consequence, not a few are opposing the light that is now shining from the Word of God, disclosing to us the fact that much that came down to us from the Dark Ages is as contrary to the Bible as to reason. Many of the professed teachers of the Church
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are heartily opposed to Bible study, although their opposition is advanced as cautiously as possible "for fear of the people"--for "fear of the Jews."
The Scriptures from first to last give us to understand that God's Word is to shine more and more brightly down to the very end of this Gospel Age. St. Peter declares it to be the "more sure Word of prophecy to which we do well that we take heed as to a light shining in a dark place until the day dawn."--`2 Peter 1:19`.
The Bishop of England opposed the Tyndale translation because the practices of the time were not in harmony with the Scriptures. Similarly today there are doctrines, traditions, creeds from the Dark Ages, still reverenced, and which a better understanding of the Bible would correct and put to shame. Hence the opposition to the better understanding of God's Word. Nevertheless, the Word of God shall stand forever, and the spirit of the Truth shall make free indeed all the children of the Truth.
"Truth, crushed to earth, shall rise again;
The eternal years of God are hers."
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THE PROPRIETY OF FASTING
"When ye fast be not as the hypocrites,
of a sad countenance."--`Matt. 6:16`.
IN OUR TEXT our Lord is not expressing any disapprobation of fasting; quite to the contrary; He is endorsing it as a propriety. Undoubtedly it is better for the health to fast somewhat at times rather than to eat to satisfaction. The Master's comment, according to the context, seems to be based upon the improper conduct of the Pharisees. The fasting was supposed to be good not only for physical health, but also for mental and spiritual health. The Pharisees, professing to be very holy, made manifest their holiness by fasting, subordinating the flesh that they might be spiritually strengthened.
Our Lord does not dispute the propriety of such a course, but it was the wrong spirit that He condemned. For when the Pharisees fasted, many of them did it to be seen of men, in order to seem holy and given over to spiritual things. Hence our Lord's suggestion that when His disciples fast they should not be as the hypocrites, whose fasting and long faces were to show men their piety. In the same connection our Lord proceeds to say that when His disciples fast they should do the very reverse; that they should anoint their heads and be as cheerful as possible.
We can see the philosophy of this course. If their fasting had brought them nearer to the Heavenly Father it should have made them more gracious and luminous. It should have had a happifying effect, which would have shown itself in the countenance. The thing reprimanded, then, was the hypocrisy of the Pharisees, who assumed a sadness of countenance to be seen of men. They delighted to have people say, "What a holy man! He has fasted so much! He is always thinking about holy things and, in order to do this, he is even denying himself the necessities of life. He is a very holy man!"
The followers of the Lord are to practise such fasting as will be seen of the Lord and not of men. The Father, who knows the heart, will appreciate our efforts to draw near to Him and will grant our desire. But these things should be hidden to the outside world and known only to God; and the joy of the Lord should be manifest in the countenance.
HOLINESS OF THE HEART NOT A MERE OUTWARD FORM
Our Lord's frequent reference to the Pharisees, no doubt, was in part owing to the fact that the Pharisees were a very large and influential class; and in part because their name signified that they were the holy people. Hence, when our Lord was teaching special obedience to God, the question in the minds of the people would be, "Is He not a Pharisee, and do not the Pharisees teach all these things?"
So it became necessary for our Lord Jesus to show wherein some of these things that the Pharisees practised were not proofs of their special nearness to God, and that they were not leaders to holiness, but that it was very evident that many of the Pharisees were hypocritical. Their holiness had become a mere form; it had degenerated into a custom--as the Scriptures say, a "Drawing near to the Lord with their lips, while their hearts were far from Him," and thinking merely of the general attitude they had toward the world, the people in general.
We remember that there were some very noble Pharisees-- Nicodemus, and Joseph of Arimathea, who buried our Lord, and St. Paul, who tells us that he was a Pharisee. But evidently the greater part of them had made broad their phylacteries and were more anxious in respect to what men would think of them than what the Lord would think of them. Perhaps some of the hypocrisies of the Pharisees have been practised since by some in the Monastic Order, where they wished to show their special separation from the world by the wearing of a peculiar garb, by a special cut of the hair, by seclusion, etc. There is danger along this line in the observance of the Lenten season by some of the Catholics, Episcopalians, Lutherans. But it may not be hypocritical with all.
ABSTEMIOUSNESS SPECIALLY HELPFUL DURING LENT
In many respects it would be a very good thing for all the Lord's people to follow the Lenten custom of fasting, doing so with as little outward demonstration as possible, practising it as unto the Lord, without considering it a thing to be mentioned, without attracting attention, but merely as a privilege. The Lenten season comes at a time when abstemiousness in food seems particularly appropriate. As the cold of winter sharpens the appetite, in order to the resistance of the lower temperature of that season, so, in the spring, less carbon is needed, as there is not so much cold to resist; hence it would seem advantageous to practise fasting, more or less, in the Lenten season.
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We have in mind the fact that the Lenten season represents the forty-day period of our Lord's experiences just preceding the crucifixion. We might enter sympathetically into this matter and think of the trying experiences that were upon the Master when He knew that He was drawing near to the time of His death. As we try to think of Him it will enable us better to realize what a privilege it is to endure hardship as good soldiers for the sake of His Message.
Fasting is specially commendable to the Lord's people at times when they find themselves lacking in spirituality and exposed to severe temptations from the world, the flesh and the Devil; for, by impoverishing the physical force and vitality, it may assist the full-blooded and impulsive to self-control in every direction. We may believe that a majority of Christians would be helped by occasional fasting--by a very plain diet, if not total abstinence, for a season. But fastings to be seen and known of men, or to be esteemed in our own minds as marks of piety on our part, would be injurious indeed and would lead to spiritual pride and hypocrisy, which would far outweigh any advantage to us in the way of self-restraint.
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GUIDED BY GOD'S EYE
"I will guide thee with Mine eye."--`Psa. 32:8`.
THE EYE is one of the most important organs of the body with which to give expression to the feelings. Either anger or pleasure are usually expressed by this means. One thought which we may take from the text is that one may be so desirous of doing the Divine will that he will be continually on the alert to please, just as a dutiful child, being on the alert to do the will of the parent, would look at the parent's eye, not waiting for the rod. So all of God's dear children of the Church should be looking unto Jesus for the expression of the Father's will concerning them. They look to Jesus as the Author of their faith and the One who shall be the Finisher of it. They look to Him as the great Counselor and Guide of life. As we sometimes sing:
"Oh, let no earth-born cloud arise
To hide Thee from Thy servant's eyes!"
Another thought is that as the eye is the symbol of wisdom, so God guides all things in wisdom. He sees to it that His children receive the necessary counsel, the necessary aid. Since He is the All-Wise One, nothing can escape His attention. Still another thought is that as we recognize the Divine purpose, the Divine will, the Divine outworking of that will, we see that in the present time God is not trying to save the world, but only "the called," "the elect," who are obedient in sacrifice. All who are of the First-Borns should seek to follow the same course as God, to be co-workers with Him. They
should have no will of their own, but do the Father's will.
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One of the most important lessons for the spiritual Israelite to learn is to look to the Lord for leading in all of life's affairs--never to attempt any undertaking, either temporal or spiritual, without seeking to note the will of the Lord concerning it. We are marching toward the antitypical Canaan and know that other experiences are due us and must be undergone ere we can inherit the promises. The lesson for us is prompt and thorough obedience to the Lord's leadings without murmurings-- with joyfulness; and this can be expected only on the part of those who have learned the lessons previously given them, and above all, the lesson of faith--confidence in the Lord's power and goodness and faithfulness.
BEREAN QUESTIONS IN SCRIPTURE STUDIES
Series VI., Study VI.--Order and Discipline in the New Creation.
TEACHERS IN THE CHURCH.
(104) What is the special Scriptural significance of "aptness to teach"? P. 255.
(105) How may we distinguish between teaching and preaching? P. 256, par. 1.
(106) What is the work of an evangelist? and how have present-day conditions changed the method of evangelization? P. 256, par. 2; P. 257.
MANY SHOULD BE ABLE TO TEACH.
(107) What Scripture implies that in a general sense all the members of the New Creation should be able to teach, and that teaching is not limited to a clerical class? P. 257, par. 2.
"BE NOT MANY OF YOU TEACHERS, BRETHREN?"
(108) Does `James 3:1` mean that none of the Church should become teachers? If not, what does it mean? P. 258, par. 1.
(109) Explain `Matt. 5:19` in this connection. P. 258, par. 2.
"YE NEED NOT THAT ANY MAN TEACH YOU."
(110) In view of other Scriptures and the experiences of life, is the accepted translation of `1 John 2:27,20` correct? P. 259, par. 1.
(111) What thoughts are suggested by the context, beginning with `verse 18`? P. 259, par. 2.
(112) What is evidently the Apostle's thought with respect to `verse 27`? P. 260, par. 1,2.
(113) What is the special significance of the word "unction" in `verse 20`? and how was this typified? P. 261, par. 1.
(114) Of what is this unction an evidence to ourselves and to others? P. 261, par. 2.
(115) What is therefore the conclusion with respect to the necessity for teachers? P. 262, par. 1,2.
"HIM THAT IS TAUGHT, AND HIM THAT TEACHETH."
(116) Do the Scriptures teach a machine-like faith and acceptance of every doctrine? P. 263, par. 1.
(117) On the other hand, does the Word of God encourage a combative, fault-finding or debating spirit? P. 263, par. 2.
(118) What does the word "communicate" signify in `Gal. 6:6`? P. 264, par. 1.
WOMAN'S PROVINCE IN THE CHURCH.
(119) Is there any sex-discrimination with respect to eligibility for membership in the New Creation? Support your reply with Scripture quotations. P. 264, par. 3, first half.
(120) In view of explicit limitations placed upon woman's service in the Church, how shall we harmonize this with the preceding statement? P. 265, top.
(121) Do the Scriptures indicate a lack of love on the part of our Lord, or of education or ability on their part, that such restrictions were placed upon women in the early Church? P. 265, par. 1.
(122) How does woman appear to have been used by the Adversary in misleading mankind? P. 265, par. 2.
(123) What natural endowment of woman may reasonably seem to unfit her for public service? P. 266, par. 1,2.
(124) How does this quality of approbativeness become a snare to woman when exercised toward the public? P. 267, par. 1, first part.
(125) How is ambition to appear wiser than others a danger that besets man as well as woman? and what are the Apostle's warnings? P. 267, par. 1; Z.'08-24.