ZWT - 1892 - R1346 thru R1484 / R1474 (001) - December 1, 1892

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VOL. XIII. DECEMBER 1, 1892. NO. 23.




"The heavens shall be rolled together as a scroll" is a symbolical prophecy now nearing fulfilment. As has already been shown, the "heavens" in the symbolism of the Bible represent ecclesiastical powers--the nominal church--and the rolling together of these represents the concentration, federation or union now being so prominently discussed.

"Rolled together as a scroll" is also a suggestive symbol. All who are familiar with a scroll of parchment, and its way of rolling together, know that it rolls from its two ends toward a common centre, yet that each side of the scroll has its own centre--two rolls, one scroll--a concentration to one centre but in two grand divisions.

The preparation for just this sort of a union and concentration of nominal "Christendom" is very apparent, and the evidences that it is imminent are everywhere and are multiplying. The Protestants are preparing to form one side or roll, and the Roman Catholics to constitute the other. The various denominations of Protestants, although uniting in the call for union, are doctrinally as radically opposed to each other as ever--Presbyterians holding that only the elect will be saved from eternal torment; Baptists claiming that only such as have been immersed are members of the true Church which alone will be saved; Episcopalians claiming that they only constitute the true Church; and other Protestant denominations making more or less similar claims.

The secular press abounds with intimations which clearly show the general drift in the direction named: Conferences and Councils endorse it; individuals talk it in and out of the pulpits; and the secular as well as the religious press commends it. Few but ourselves see that what outwardly has an appearance of good will prove to be antagonistic to the truth--as a similar centralization of religious power proved to be injurious to the truth and its servants during "the dark ages"--and our judgment is what it is, not from greater human wisdom than others, but because of wisdom from above --through God's Word.

In MILLENNIAL DAWN, Vol. III., Chapter iv., we show that the beginning of Protestant centralization took shape in 1846, in the formation of the Evangelical Alliance, a fact that is noted in the Book of Revelation as the making of an image of the (Papal) Beast. This Image is a partial federation of Protestants, but as yet it lacks all vitality; and the present agitation for vital union, when accomplished, will correspond to the vivifying or giving of life to the Image. (`Rev. 13:15`.) So soon as the vitalizing takes place, that Protestant system, a veritable likeness to the Papal, will similarly to it command the people in the name of God to obey its behests, and threaten them with both temporal and spiritual punishments for any resistance. An agreement between the original Papal Beast (system) and the Protestant Image (system) is clearly indicated by the statement that all must ::R1474 : page 356:: worship [reverence and obey] either the Beast or the Image. (`Rev. 13:15-17`.) This harmony and yet distinctness between the Beast and the Image is likewise indicated in the scroll with its two parts--yet joined and of one material.

The Protestant movement for union or rather federation has already received quite an impetus from the formation of the "Young People's Society of Christian Endeavor." This unites under one name young Protestants of every denomination; but so far from opposing or even ignoring sectarianism, it fosters it by obligating each Christian Endeavorer, to belong to some human institution, and exacting of him the promise to attend preaching at his own church every Sunday, so far as practicable, and to co-operate with its pastor and its rules.

The success of the young folks' movement has naturally led to the starting of similar union movements amongst senior Christians. One of these, recently started, and which thus far is making rapid progress, is styled the "Brotherhood of Christian Unity." As an evidence of this drift of public sentiment we note the fact that The Review of Reviews, in its issue of last February, published four distinct papers on this subject under the general head, "The Laymen's Movement." (1) "The Brotherhood of Christian Unity:" An explanation of the movement by its founder, T.F. Seward. (2) "Denominationalism on the Frontier:" An effort to show that denominationalism on the frontier is a serious drawback. (3) "Religious Co-operation in Maine:" An article by the President of Bowdoin College, to show that denominationalism is wholly unsuited to small towns and villages, and should be regarded as a city luxury. (4) "The Next Step Toward a Civic Church:" A report of an English movement and an address by W. T. Steed. The address urges the necessity of a Civil-Church organization to deal with all questions of morality. In it, under the caption "A Christianity that includes the Jews," we read: "I am glad to see on the platform the Rabbi of the Jews. I sincerely hope that he will not consider, when I use the word Christian, that I use it in such a sectarian sense as to exclude him [a Jew] from the field."

The same magazine in its issue for October has no less than eight articles on the same general line, headed, "Religious Co-operation-- Local, National and International," as follows: (1) "Practical Co-operation in Church work:" A review of the good prospects of lay co-operation in Christian work. (2) "New Methods Wanted in Home Missions:" A plea for the abandonment of denominationalism in frontier mission work. (3) "A Christian Brotherhood Sunday:" A request that on October 30th Christian ministers, everywhere, would preach a discourse setting forth the advisability of a Christian Unity Brotherhood. (4) "The Municipal Idea of the Church:" Urging Christian Unity. (5) "Progress of the Civic Centre Movement in England:" Showing that the movement begun in New Castle has spread to ten other cities and towns. (6) "The Reunion Conference at Gindelwald" (Switzerland). The report declares, "The whole tone of the discussions was most encouraging to those who hope that it may yet be possible for the Established [English] Church and the Presbyterians, Congregationalists, Methodists and Baptists to find a basis for fusion into a truly National Church." (7) "The Meaning of National Christianity:" In this paper the point is well made that none of the governments of the world are Christian governments. Then the question comes "How then does the State become Christian?" and the answer given is that it is by the passing and enforcing of Christian laws. (8) "The First Parliament of Religions:" An account of the Conference of all the religions of the world to be held at Chicago, in connection with the Columbian Exposition.

This general movement for union is an encouraging sign of progress to many--all glad to get away from the narrowness of their own creeds, without openly repudiating them. If it were a desire for union upon a Bible basis--an effort to lay aside prejudices and names and to seek the one interpretation with which every portion of Scripture would harmonize, we too would hail it as the peaceful ushering in of the Millennial Day. But, alas! it is the cry of Peace! peace! when there is no peace. It is the cry of Union! union! when the only true ::R1474 : page 357:: basis of Christian Union is omitted--Jesus!

But this is not the case, says one. This proposal is for a Brotherhood of Christian unity. Oh, yes! we know it is to be called Christian; but it is to include Antichrist's followers of every shade. As one writer cited above declares, such a use of the name Christian includes the Jews who crucified Christ as a blasphemer and impostor, and who still so regard him. It is to embrace Romanists whose false doctrines, yet unchanged, led their progenitors to persecute and "wear out the saints of the Most High." Yes! it prostitutes a most sacred name to uses of human ambition for such a colossal union as God's Word never authorized --a union of the works of the devil under the name of him who was manifested that he might destroy the devil. Surely the proposed union --vitalizing the Protestant image and bringing it into accord with the Papal (beast) system--is a master-stroke of Satan and one of the "strong delusions" of this time foretold by the Apostle. --`2 Thes. 2:11`.

But, as we said, all of these proposed unions ignore Christ's work as our Savior. Not one of them recognizes any need of a Savior. They are propositions of unions in disregard of the facts that all men are sinners and that the great sacrifice for sins was necessary. And the declaration of these facts is the gospel; and only such as accept of these declared facts by faith receive the forgiveness of sins or have a share in the benefits secured by the precious blood, or have a right to wear the holy name "Christian."

Let us see: here is the pledge of the Brotherhood of Christian Unity. It reads as follows, the italicizing being ours:--

"I hereby agree to accept the creed promulgated by the Founder of Christianity--love to God and love to man--as the rule of my life. I also agree to recognize as fellow-Christians, and members of the Brotherhood of Christian Unity, all who accept this creed and Jesus Christ as their leader.

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"I join the Brotherhood with the hope that such a voluntary association and fellowship with Christians of every faith will deepen my spiritual life and bring me into more helpful relations with my fellow-men.

"Promising to accept Jesus Christ as my leader means that I intend to study his character with a desire to be imbued with his spirit, to imitate his example, and to be guided by his precepts."

Surely this pledge binds all who take it to ignore faith in the cross, the real Scriptural condition of union, when it binds them to recognize those who ignore the atonement. It is made thus broad purposely to take into this fellowship those who deny our Lord's pre-human life and glory and those who deny justification by his blood. It is a union which ignores the foundation of Christian faith--the ransom; that ignores the fact that Christ died for our sins according to the Scriptures.

The projected and now assured World's Congress of Religions at Chicago next year might also be regarded as a favorable sign for our times, but for the same reasons above mentioned. Its leading spirits are working up a union and fraternity at the expense of the keystone of God's plan of salvation, Christ the Redeemer. Among numerous quotations from ministers, college presidents and prominent people generally, we did not notice one reference to the Savior of sinners. On the contrary:-- One thinks that the Congress will lead to a "mutually good understanding among those of every name who believe in the Fatherhood of God and the brotherhood of man." [Nothing is said of those who are afar off from God, strangers and aliens through wicked works --nor of those to whom our Lord said, Ye are in no sense even Abraham's seed: "Ye are of your father the devil."] Another said: "Such a reunion would never have been possible until the present day; and it now marks a distinct epoch in the evolution of the race." Of course; --when man's fall, and the redemption and restitution from it, are ignored or lost sight of, the other extreme is grasped;--man's ape origin is implied, and present progress is considered to be a natural evolution.

Another, commenting on the Congress, sums up the movement in words which confirm our criticisms above, saying:--

"A religion which can claim at once the faith of Christians, Jews, Mohammedans and Confucians--granting the existence of such a faith--should be considered as doing away with doctrines in virtue of which these various religious ::R1475 : page 358:: groups not only contradict each other, but too often outlaw one another. I will add that this common religion, the only universal religion, is, by this very reason of its universality, the most conformed to the exigencies of human brotherhood; and it would not be difficult to show that it is also the least opposed to the pretensions of science, which tends to assure it an immense advantage in our epoch and social environment."


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--`PSALM 23:5`.--


When the Lord prepares a table we may be sure of several things: first, that it will be clean; secondly, that it will be good; thirdly, that it will be orderly, bountiful and beautiful. And wherever we find the truth thus carefully set before the household of faith--whether by the press, the pen or the pulpit--there we may be sure the spirit of the Lord has been at work, directing and superintending the matter. The Prophet `Isaiah (Chapter 28:8`), referring to the tables of popular theology now spread before the masses of nominal Christians, graphically described their present condition when he said, "For all tables are full of vomit and filthiness, so that there is no place clean." For centuries past they have been feeding on the miserable husks of human tradition, until now a reaction has set in and they are vomiting forth the abominable stuff, and their tables are full of filthiness.

Then again there are many more tables being spread with new traditions and human speculations, to which those are promptly invited who turn away in disgust from the old, polluted tables. In all of this the great adversary of the Church is diligently and faithfully at work with all his accustomed craft and cunning, using with great effect both the press and the platform, the two most potent agencies for reaching the people.

It is an increasingly popular idea among religious journalists that such a journal should be a medium merely for the expression of all shades of human opinion upon all matters of divine revelation, and that each individual should abstract from them all what he conceives to be true, and reject the rest. But this is precisely what the readers, and often the editors, too, of such journals are unable to do, and the general confusion is only increased unto greater blindness and denser darkness, and thus the purpose of the adversary is accomplished.

There is a deep responsibility to God which every man assumes, whether he realizes it or not, when he becomes a public teacher. "Whosoever shall break one of these least commandments, and shall teach men so, he shall be called the least in the kingdom of heaven; but whosoever shall do and teach them, the same shall be called great in the kingdom of heaven."-- `Matt. 5:19`.

No table is fit for the household of faith to be summoned to that has not been spread by careful hands, fully submitted and obedient to the great Head of the house, whose directions are found in his Word. God says (`Hab. 2:2`) to some to whom he has granted a measure of ability to serve the household, and who (`verse 1`) are watching (studying his Word) to know what he would have them communicate--"Write the vision [what you have seen of divine truth] and make it plain upon tablets." That is, set it out in an orderly, systematic manner, "that he may run that readeth it"--that he may run for the prize. Observe that it is not every man that is called to make the truth plain, but that some of the class specified are called to do so for the benefit of all the rest. In the Scriptures there are many surface truths which all may see and appreciate, but the systematic ordering of the divine plan, much of which was purposely hidden and obscurely expressed, and the bringing out of its wonderful details, was left for an appointed time. And when the appointed time has come and the faithful watcher is led to see the systematic harmony of divine truth--not to guess at it, or to surmise about it, but to see it, so plainly that he can clearly, logically and Scripturally demonstrate it to others--then it becomes the privilege of such a

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one to make plain to others what the Lord has made plain to him. And such a one may consider his ability in this direction (together with a possible opportunity and a strong love for the saints, which longs to bless them with a fuller knowledge of God and to exhort and stimulate them to greater faithfulness) as the Lord's call to him to make it plain.

But such should remember that the commission is to "make it plain," not to make it obscure. And if a man has no truth to make plain, but is only seeking for truth, he makes a great mistake in launching out his crude and inharmonious ideas for the confusion of other minds. Such a one should maintain the proper attitude of a disciple, a learner, until he does see clearly and is thus fitted to become a teacher of others. And if he is a faithful student, studying to show himself a workman approved unto God, ere long he may enjoy the privilege of declaring the truth to others through some medium, and be greatly blessed in so doing.

Let none of the consecrated be in haste to rush into print with crude, undefined ideas, and thus become stumbling-blocks in the way of many others. Be content to spread the truth you have received, and proved to your thorough satisfaction, before some other hungry saints; but keep the table clean: don't make up for your deficiency of knowledge by spreading out a host of idle speculations. Better is a pure morsel from a clean table than great abundance under other conditions. By and by to this morsel another morsel will be added, and in due time the wealth of divine bounty will be realized.


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"A disturbance or alarm in a hospital or asylum might prove fatal to some of the inmates. An elderly gentleman in a benevolent institution amused himself awhile by beating a drum before sunrise. The authorities finally requested this "lovely brother" to remove his instrument to a respectful distance. This illustrates the reason why earnest pastors grow serious when a disturbance arises in the church. The church is like a hospital where are gathered sin-sick persons who in a spiritual sense are fevered, leprous, paralytic, wounded and half dead. A disturbance, like the present cruel distraction which emanates from some of our Theological Seminaries, may destroy some souls who are now passing through a crisis. Will Prof. Briggs please walk softly and remove his drum?"

--Rev. C. E. Edwards,
in Presbyterian Banner.

The above is a remarkable statement, whose force consists chiefly in the fact that the writer is a Presbyterian minister who ought to know of its truth; and its publication by the Presbyterian Banner shows that the editor of that journal, feeling the pulse of the patients, agrees with the diagnosis.

Let us examine the patient (Presbyterianism) carefully, and no doubt we shall find that its ailment more or less affects other systems called by men churches, and let us then thank God that the Church, the one Church, which is the body of Christ, has no such symptoms.

"The [Presbyterian] church is like a hospital where are gathered sin-sick persons who in a spiritual sense are fevered, leprous, paralytic, wounded and half dead." In what a dreadful condition it is! We knew it was bad enough, but did not suppose that its own Doctors of Divinity appreciated the case so fully as this diagnosis would indicate. We are not even yet prepared to conclude that the diagnosis fits every individual member of Presbyterianism, though, alas! it undoubtedly well describes the spiritual state of the vast majority.

In view of the facts, can we wonder that Presbyterians fear any commotion or discussion of Biblical, scientific or other questions? Is it not their sympathy for the afflicted and weak among them that causes this alarm? And what are the Presbyterian Doctors doing for the sin-sick denomination which places itself under their care? Are they busily engaged in preparing and administering remedies to cure these dreadful troubles? No! the only prescriptions compounded are anaesthetics to produce slumber! The cry is Peace, Peace! Let us have quiet! Stop beating any drum which

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might arouse the people to thought! Suggest and answer as few questions as possible. If any one blows a trumpet in Zion or cries aloud that the patients are being drugged and stupefied to death instead of being cured with the balm of Gilead--the truth--hound him down; crush him; destroy his voice and influence if he does not understand that the Presbyterian church is a hospital. Under present methods it will always be a hospital; or perhaps more properly it may be termed a "Home for Incurable;" for none are encouraged to hope for a realization of full forgiveness of sins, and some of the oldest of its Doctors disclaim a cure for even themselves, and still cry out, "Lord, have mercy upon us miserable sinners!"

But how different is the condition of the true Church of Christ, whose names are written in heaven! It is not a hospital full of wounded, sin-sick, leprous and half-dead people. On the contrary, it is a band of cured ones, healed ones, dead indeed to the world, but alive toward God. They were indeed as others, sin-bitten and dying, but, having looked unto the crucified one, they were healed, justified freely from all things, "made whiter than snow;" and thus made ready, they were invited to become the companions and representatives of the Great Physician, and to be co-workers with him in curing the sin-sick world.

We are glad to believe that the Presbyterian church contains some few of the members of the one true Church; but the sin-sick, palsied, leprous and half-dead are only so many yet in their sins, who, instead of finding the Great Physician and receiving the balm of Gilead, and obtaining a cure, have been the subjects of professional malpractice. They were put to bed (`Isa. 28:20`) and to sleep in the Presbyterian church after the manner usual in all other denominations.

If Dr. Briggs and some others in the great Hospital Presbyterian will blow their trumpets and beat their drums effectually, they will certainly do somebody good; for even though they give very discordant and uncertain sounds, they may at least awake the sleepers. And though the confusion may annoy the patients, and especially the Doctors, the results cannot fail to benefit the truth-hungry among them.

Let us who have it hold up the light! Sound the trumpet of truth! "Cry aloud; spare not: lift up thy voice like a trumpet, and show my people their transgressions."--`Isa. 58:1`.


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As it is with the antecedents of Divine Judgment so it is with the process, and as it is with the process so it is with the consequents. If the antecedents of divine judgment are kept in view an adequate idea of the process may be obtained; but it is impossible to obtain an adequate idea of any part of divine judgment if its antecedent part is not kept in view. The first stage of divine judgment made it clear that "the first man" was then unfit for endless life, and the consequents thereof keep that lesson before the human mind from generation to generation. God does not judge man by some permission granted, request made, or wish expressed; nor does he judge him by some impulse of the human heart, conviction of the human mind, or dictate of the human conscience: he judges him by a definite law enforced by an adequate penalty. The penalty for sin is the sum of the consequents of divine judgment; and the consequents of divine judgment are the sum of the sentence which was pronounced upon man. In considering them it is safest to observe the order in which they are recorded.



"Unto the woman he [the Lord God] said, I will greatly multiply thy sorrow and thy conception; in sorrow shalt thou bring forth children; and thy desire shall be subject [margin] to thy husband, and he shall rule over thee." --`Gen. 3:16`.

The sentence is one of sorrow all around, only sorrow, and that of the bitterest kind. Even the multiplication of her children, which naturally to the mother would have been the multiplication of her joy, becomes to her the

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multiplication of her sorrow. There is no place left for individual equality or individual freedom; the wife is placed in subordination and in subjection to her husband. The position might become incentive to treatment of the most cruel and brutal nature; and as a matter of fact it has become so very extensively. The duration of the sorrow is the duration of the life: it is sorrow even unto death. Under this sentence "the whole creation groaneth and travaileth in pain together until now" (`Rom. 8:22`); and no part of creation is subjected to intenser pain than is woman, who is its tenderest and fairest part. "A woman in travail" has been a symbol of agony throughout all ages. It would be difficult to exaggerate her manifold and harrowing sufferings, and all attempts to belittle them either distort or ignore the dire facts of the case.

"And unto Adam he [the Lord God] said, Because thou hast hearkened unto the voice of thy wife, and hast eaten of the tree of which I commanded thee, saying, 'Thou shalt not eat of it': cursed is the ground for thy sake; in sorrow shalt thou eat of it all the days of thy life: thorns also and thistles shall it bring forth unto thee; and thou shalt eat the herb of the field; in the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread till thou return unto the ground: for out of it thou wast taken: for dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return."--`Gen. 3:17-19`.

In this sentence pointed reference is made to the fact that Jehovah made man of the dust of the ground, and to the prohibition which he distinctly placed before him at his creation. (`Gen. 2:7,17`.) This sentence is a curse from beginning to end. The curse pronounced is the curse of the law of the first life. Cursedness is the anthithesis of blessedness. So long as man conformed to the Divine Law he was blessed, and as soon as he refused to conform to that law he was cursed. The curse is formulated in the sentence, and it is a formidable one. Instead of the spontaneous production of either the luxuries or the necessaries of life, strenuous and protracted efforts become indispensable; instead of joy dominating those efforts, they become dominated by sorrow; and instead of the sorrow being either trivial or brief it becomes profound and co-extensive with the life. In addition to "the herb of the field" being obtainable only by strenuous and protracted labor, there were to be "thorns and thistles" obtainable without any labor at all. The latter naturally choke the former, which increases and intensifies the toil, so that man's food is not obtainable without "sweat" being wrung from his face; and this hard, grinding, crushing toil continues until he is brought down to "the dust" again. All that man eats, all that man drinks, all that he wears and all that he breathes spring out of the ground, or are

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affected by it; so that in the curse pronounced upon the ground man is cursed in his entirety. Cursed in person and in environment, always cursed, and the curse is so heavy that sooner or later it reduces man into his original elements. It is sometimes quite complacently stated that "no curse" was passed upon man. In the face of this sentence such statements are most extraordinary. In its culmination this curse is the concentration of all curses.



"And all the days that Adam lived were nine hundred and thirty years: and he died." --`Gen. 5:5`.

The execution of the sentence which was passed upon Adam is thus recorded in the oldest Registrar of Births and Deaths that is known to us. The death of Adam is recorded in conjunction with that of seven of his descendants, whose lives are all now considered to have been of extraordinary length. The shortest of the eight lives was 777, and the longest was 969 years, but in each case the record ends with these unvarying and significant words--"and he died." The record of Adam's death is in perfect keeping with the sentence which was passed upon him, and also with the sanction of the law of life which was given to him. When Jehovah said to Adam: "Of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it; for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die" or (as it is in the margin) "dying thou shalt die" (`Gen. 2:17`), that was not equivalent to saying: Dying thou shalt die in twenty-four hours. And when Jehovah

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said to Adam: "Dust thou art, and unto dust shall thou return" (`Gen. 3:19`), that was not equivalent to saying, Unto dust shalt thou return in twenty-four hours. A "day" may be of twenty-four hours, or of one thousand years, or of any intermediate duration. In neither the law given nor the sentence pronounced has anything definite been found touching the element of time. It appears to have been purposely left indefinite, and that no doubt for adequate reasons. Throughout the whole Bible the term "day" is very largely used to express an indefinite period of time. "The day of temptation," "the day of visitation," "the day of prosperity," "the day of adversity," "the day of Egypt," "the day of Jerusalem," etc., may be taken as examples of this usage. The sin of Adam forfeited his life, and therefore his death was certain. Whether Adam died instantaneously or not for one thousand years could not affect either the nature of the penalty or the certainty of its infliction; but it could affect, and it did affect, many other things. In human jurisprudence mistakes are often made and criminals often escape, but in divine jurisprudence no mistake is ever made nor does any criminal ever escape. Ultimately these three small but significant words--"and he died"--were recorded respecting Adam, and his death had been inevitable from the moment in which he sinned.

There are some points which require special emphasis here:--

(1) In the Law, the Sentence, and the Execution of the Sentence, the death mentioned is the death of the man. The record of man's formation stands thus: "The Lord God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul." (`Gen. 2:7`.) This is the earliest record that there is of man, and throughout the Bible his component parts are spoken of in accordance with it. In the Law it is not said, thy body shall surely die, nor thy spirit shall surely die, nor thy soul shall surely die; but it is said, "Thou shalt surely die." In the sentence it is not said, unto dust shall thy body return, nor unto dust shall thy spirit return, nor unto dust shall thy soul return; but it is said, "Unto dust shalt thou return. And in the record of Adam's death it is not said, his body died, nor his spirit died, nor his soul died; but it is said, "he died." It is not this, that, or the other part of the man that is spoken of, but the man from first to last. The annihilation of this, that, or the other part of the man is not under consideration here. That may be possible or it may be impossible, but it has nothing whatever to do with the present subject. The subject under consideration here is the death pronounced in the sentence, and that is the death of the man.

(2) In the Law, the Sentence, and the Execution of the Sentence, the death mentioned is the first death. In the Law Jehovah did not say unto Adam, Thou shalt surely twice die; but he did say, "Thou shalt surely die." In the Sentence Jehovah did not say unto Adam, Unto dust shalt thou twice return; but he did say, "Unto dust shalt thou return." And in the record of Adam's death it is not said, he twice died; but it is said, "he died." Had two deaths been intended two deaths would have been stated. The one statement could have been made as easily as the other. The fact that two deaths are not once mentioned here makes it quite clear that two deaths were never intended to be inflicted, as far as the first stage of divine judgment is concerned.

In England the law is that a murderer shall be put to death; the judge in passing sentence on the convicted murderer generally says that he shall hang by the neck until he is dead; and after the execution the coroner's jury generally brings in a verdict that he died according to the sentence pronounced. After that, were any sheriff to conceive that the convict had to die twice, and to attempt to execute him the second time, what would be the result? Instead of being any longer fit for his office, rational men would consider him fit for a lunatic asylum. Were he able to carry out his intention that would not mitigate his folly; and the fact that he could not do so would merely enhance it. The dogma of two deaths to one life as the penalty of sin is unmitigated folly. A more fiendish dogma can be found, but a more foolish one it is scarcely possible to find.

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(3) In the Law, the Sentence, and the Execution of the Sentence, the death mentioned is hereditary death. When God said to Adam, "Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth" (`Gen. 1:28`), he spoke of the extension of hereditary life. When Adam sinned he forfeited life. That life was poisoned in its head before it was extended at all. It was impregnated with the seed of death, and became a dying life, before it left Adam. Adam could not extend what he no longer had for himself --untainted life. He extended what he had-- tainted life--life which inevitably ends in death; and that (tainted) life has been extended from sire to son, from generation to generation, and from age to age ever since. In addition to observation and experience there is inspired testimony clear and distinct on this point: "By one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin; and so death passed upon all men, in whom [margin] all have sinned." "By one man's offence death reigned by one." "The creation was made subject to vanity, not willingly." "In Adam all die." (`Rom. 5:12,17`; `8:20`; `1 Cor. 15:22`.) Individual sin, except in the first man, has nothing to do with hereditary death. It extends to all mankind, not merely to the hoary-headed sinners, but to the new-born and unborn babes as well.

(4) In the Law, the Sentence, and the Execution of the sentence, the death mentioned is not endless torment. Such is the perversity of human nature that it is still necessary to reiterate this. Torment is a consequent of human transgression, and also a consequent of divine judgment, but not endless torment. Transgression and torment are inseparable, but neither is endless. In the Law Jehovah said, "Thou shalt surely die;" but he did not say, Thou shalt surely be always tormented. In the Sentence Jehovah said, "Unto dust shalt thou return;" but he did not say, Unto endless torment shalt thou return. And in the record of Adam's death it is said, "he died;" but it is not said, he entered into endless torment. As it was in the law given to Adam, the sentence passed upon him, and the execution of that sentence, so it is throughout the whole Bible: there is no countenance whatever given to the hideous dogma that endless torment is either the penalty of human transgression or the consequent of divine judgment.

Where death is the "capital punishment," were any sheriff to attempt to substitute torment for death he would be met by a howl of execration throughout the length and breadth of the land. The tormentor himself would very speedily become the tormented. Were endless torment possible its inflictor would of all be the most deserving of it. Infidels have uttered many blasphemies against God, but of all blasphemies that which represents God as inflicting endless torment is the most infamous. It may truly be said that endless torment is the sum of all fiendishness; and to represent it as either the penalty of human sin or the consequent of divine judgment is the sum of all blasphemy against the character of God.



"These things saith the first and the last, which was dead and is alive." "Be thou faithful unto death, and I will give thee a crown of life." "He that overcometh shall not be hurt of the second death." "Blessed and holy is he that hath part in the first resurrection; on such the second death hath no power." "And I saw the dead, small and great, stand before God; and the books were opened: and another book was opened, which is the book of life; and the dead were judged out of those things which were written in the books, according to their works. And the sea gave up the dead which were in it; and death and hades (R.V.) delivered up the dead which were in them; and they were judged every man according to their works. And death and hades were cast into the lake of fire. This is the second death. And whosoever was not found written in the book

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of life was cast into the lake of fire." "I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end. I will give unto him who is athirst of the water of life freely. He that overcometh shall inherit all things, and I will be his God, and he shall be my son. But the fearful, and unbelieving, and the abominable, and sorcerers, and idolaters, and all liars, shall have their part in

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the lake which burneth with fire and brimstone: which is the second death."--`Rev. 2:7-11`; `20:6,12-15`; `21:6-8`.

The first death is recorded in the first part of the Bible, and the present phrase--"the second death"--is never once met with until the last part of the Bible is reached, thousands of years afterwards. This fact is highly suggestive. Before there was any second death there was the second sin (that is, the second "sin unto death"); before there was any second sin there was the second judgment (that is, the second judgment initiated); and before there was any second judgment there was the second life (that is, the second life in its initial stage). To deprecate the use of any of these phrases--the second life, the second judgment, or the second sin--would be to deprecate the use of their cognate phrase--"the second death."

The recipient of the first life was tried and proved unfaithful. The recipients of the second life are being tried and they may individually prove either faithful or unfaithful. Their life is untainted when received, their knowledge is ultimately complete, their environment is appropriate, and their opportunity is ultimately adequate. He who proves faithful does so in accordance with his own will, and he who proves unfaithful does the same. To both is the promise made: "Be thou faithful unto death, and I will give thee a crown of life." On the faithful "the second death hath no power," they "shall not be hurt of the second death," their names will not be "blotted out of the book of life," their rank in resurrection is "the first," they are "heirs of God, and joint-heirs with Christ." "To him that overcometh will I grant to sit with me in my throne, even as I also overcame and am set down with my Father in his throne."--`Rev. 3:21`.

On the other hand, the opposite of all this is true of the unfaithful. The second death has power over them, they shall be hurt of the second death, their names shall be blotted out of the book of life, and they shall have their part in the lake which burneth with fire and brimstone. Receiving a "crown" and sitting on a "throne" are symbols of the regal, judicial and sacerdotal authority and power of the faithful, and "the lake which burneth with fire and brimstone" is a symbol of the instrumentality which effects the doom of the unfaithful. The sum of the consequents of divine judgment, so far as the faithful are concerned, is endless life, and the sum of the consequents of divine judgment, so far as the unfaithful are concerned, is endless death.

It is very easy for any Universalist to say: "These reprobates of men will have to undergo the horrors of the second death, but will rise again, for there shall be a resurrection of the dead, both of the just and unjust."--`Acts 24:15`.

But how does he know that any man will rise again from the second death? No inspired man has yet said so, and the testimony of an uninspired man in such a case goes for nothing. If there is any inspired testimony on this point why is it not presented? Any child may quote as above, but the Apostle Paul does not even mention the second death in that passage, far less does he give in it any testimony in favor of a resurrection from the second death. "A resurrection of the dead" is one thing, and a resurrection of the twice dead is quite another thing. Before there can be a resurrection from a second death there must be a second death, before there can be a second death there must be a second life, and before there can be a second life there must be a resurrection from the first death. It is the resurrection from the first death which the Apostle there affirms, and therefore his affirmation does not favor one jot any Universalist's conclusion. As it is with Paul's noble testimony there, so it is with all other inspired testimonies: they have to be wrested from their original and legitimate uses before they can be made to favor, even in appearance, the groundless dogma of a resurrection from the second death.

"If we sin wilfully after that we have received the [full] knowledge of the truth, there remaineth no more sacrifice for sin, but a certain fearful looking for of judgment and fiery indignation, which shall devour the adversaries." JOSEPH MOFFITT.


"Let us fear lest any of us come short."


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IV. QUAR., LESSON XIII., DEC. 25, `LUKE 2:8-20`.

Golden Text--"Behold, I bring you good tidings of great joy."--`Luke 2:10`.

The story of this lesson is one so familiar as to require no special comment, and yet in its simple details lies the hope of the whole world. Four thousand years previous the birth of this child was promised, and all the way along during those forty centuries some faithful souls continued to trust in the promises and to look for the salvation to be brought about through him. We may surely take for granted that the humble shepherds to whom the message of the Lord's advent first came were men who thus hoped in the promise of God; for to such, and to such only, the Lord discloses his purposes.

These men were quietly tending their flocks by night when suddenly the angel of the Lord came upon them, and the glory of the Lord shone around about them; and they were sore afraid. (`Verse 9`.) But their fear was soon overcome by the message of the angel, contained in our `golden text`, but which, strange to say, our lesson committee has only partially quoted, leaving out one of the grandest features of the message--viz., that it was to be to all people.

The message reads, "Fear not; for, behold, I bring you good tidings, of GREAT JOY, which shall be to ALL PEOPLE." It will be observed that the blessedness of these tidings is cumulative: first it is "good tidings;" then it is "great joy;" and then the crowning feature of it is that it is "to all people"--not only to you shepherds who are this night looking for the hope of Israel, but for all your friends and relations and neighbors far and near; and to all their friends and relatives and neighbors, both to those who now live and to those who shall live, as well as to all those who slumber in death.

Blessed tidings! Hearken to the gladsome sound: "For unto you is born this day in the city of David a Savior, which is Christ the Lord." (`Verse 11`.) Then he was to be a savior to all people: so the Scriptures clearly affirm, saying that, by the grace of God, he tasted death for every man, and that he gave himself a ransom for all, to be testified in due time-- to all. (`Heb. 2:9`; `1 Tim. 2:6`.) The testimony, however, is quite as necessary to the salvation of the sinner as the fact that Christ gave himself a ransom for all. The favor of salvation will not be forced upon any; but the testimony that it has been provided for every man, on condition of his acceptance of the favor upon God's terms, is to be given to every man, for his acceptance or rejection. And though millions of the race for whom Christ died have gone down to the grave without such testimony, still the fact remains that the testimony shall be given in due time--which due time, to all such, must be after their awakening from death.

And to this agree the words of the Lord: "The hour is coming in which all that are in their graves shall hear the voice of the Son of man and shall come forth; they that have done good [who during the present life have come into judgment and who have passed their trial successfully], unto the resurrection of life [the full reward of the faithful. Such will be the overcoming Church]: and they that have done evil unto the resurrection of judgment." (`John 5:25-29`.) That is, the latter class will come forth from the grave to have the truth testified to them then, for their acceptance or rejection; and their final judgment of worthiness or unworthiness of life will be based upon their course under trial after the truth has been testified to them--in the Millennial age. Thus the angel of the Lord preached the good tidings of the restitution of all things to the shepherds on the plain of Bethlehem.

`VERSE 12`. Then they told where and how they should find this bud of promise, so that when they would see him they might feel doubly assured that this was he.

`VERSES 13,14`. "Then suddenly there was with the angel a multitude of the heavenly host praising God, saying, "Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace, good will toward men." This shows how the angels of God are interested in the affairs of men, and how they sympathize with us and rejoice over our prosperity. And this reminds us of other statements to the effect that there is joy in heaven among the angels over one sinner that repenteth (`Luke 15:7`); and again that they are earnest students of the plan for human salvation; and that they are all ministering spirits sent forth to minister to them who shall be heirs of salvation. (`1 Pet. 1:12`; `Heb. 1:14`.)

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Thus we see them to be creatures of God full of loving benevolence even toward a fallen race, and esteeming it a privilege to serve the heirs

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of this salvation, although they know, as they studiously look into God's plan, that some of this fallen race are by and by to be highly exalted, even above the angels who never sinned.

Thus we see their humble recognition of the right of the Creator to do what he will with his own, and their cheerful and joyful acquiescence in his perfect will, which they know to be determined by his unerring wisdom and his fathomless love. Oh! what universal joy will prevail when the whole family of God in heaven and in earth is brought into fullest harmony under the headship of Jehovah's Anointed.

`VERSES 15,18` show the teachable attitude of the shepherds: they recognized the angels and their message as from the Lord, and, their fears being allayed, their hopes revived and their faith increased, and they felt that they must go at once and see this which had come to pass. And when they had so determined, a strange star (evidently a meteor, as it could not have been a fixed star) appeared, moving in the direction which the angel had told them to go; and they followed the star until they reached Bethlehem, when it stood still over the place where the young child was. And when they saw him they worshiped him and presented to him gold and frankincense and myrrh, recognizing in him the long-promised Messiah. And being warned of God in a dream, they disregarded the request of Herod to inform him of the whereabouts of the new-born king, and so departed into their own country another way. But as they went they published abroad the good tidings which the angels had brought to them, and how they had actually seen him of whom the prophets testified.

`VERSE 19`. "But Mary [mother-like] kept all these things and pondered them in her heart," doubtless calling to mind also the message of the angel to her. (`Luke 1:28-35`.) Again and again we seem to hear her say, "My soul doth magnify the Lord;...for he hath regarded the low estate of his handmaiden: ...he that is mighty hath done to me great things, and holy is his name."--`Luke 1:46-49`.

`VERSE 20`. The shepherds returned to their flocks, fully assured of the wonderful truth that the promised seed of the woman who was to bruise the serpent's head had really come. And they rejoiced and glorified God for all the things that they had heard and seen, as they were told unto them.


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DEAR BROTHER RUSSELL:--Sister Cox and I are both well, and are having very good success. I am delighted with this place, and think we will do much better in country towns than in large cities, as the people are more plain and seem to do more thinking. Before noon of the first day I went out, I sold a DAWN in every house except two, and have been doing well ever since. All praise be to the Lord for using me in this way.

I have not the words to express the comfort and peace I enjoy, when carrying the good news to others. Surely we are the Lord's favored people, and are living in a grand time. I have also been doing quite well among the Germans. In some houses I can sell both the German and the English DAWN.

Yours in the Master's service,


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DEAR BROTHER RUSSELL:--Your kind letter received--for which I thank you, as words of comfort and sympathy are especially welcome to me in my helpless condition. I am glad to tell you that though I am stricken, yet I am not cast down; for I realize that underneath me are the everlasting arms, and I am holden up and sustained. I have entirely lost my voice, so that I cannot sing a note. I used to pass away a deal of time singing the sweet Hymns of Millennial Dawn; but if I cannot sing here, I shall soon sing the song of Moses and the Lamb, and tell Redemption's story in a nobler, sweeter strain. I am kept in sweet peace, believing it will not be long before my Father calls me home, and I shall be with him whom, not having seen, I love.

I cannot in my present condition pledge myself to send any stated sum to the Tract Fund at any particular time, but I would have you know that to me it is more blessed to give than to receive. I am so glad to know my beloved brethren and sisters remember me at the throne of grace. Ever yours in the blessed gospel hope,


New York.

DEAR BROTHER RUSSELL:--I have been meeting with fair success, I think, considering the heavy rains to contend with--eighty orders in five days. Nothing in the world does me so much good as to meet some who are interested ::R1479 : page 367:: in these precious truths; and I know you will be glad to hear that the Lord has of late given me that privilege. One gentleman recently said, "You could not bring me any books that I would appreciate more than these, and I know I will believe every word of them, as I feel it is God's due time for us to know of the coming Kingdom."

I have read the `45th Psalm` many times in the light of the suggestions offered in your letter, and I think the attitude of the Church is beautifully pictured there. To think of being called out of our [earthly] father's house [the world], and of being on the way to the King's palace! Blessed, indeed, will be those who have the privilege of entering, and how thankful I am that the Lord has granted me the light, and the grace to walk in it.

Yours in his love and service,


New York.

DEAR BROTHER RUSSELL:--The Lord sends me much of blessing. Just in the last days of my stay in Buffalo he led me to three more who are feeding upon the blessed Bible truths to which DAWN has led their thoughts. I do want to tell you a little about them.

One has for years been one of my most loved friends, a prominent temperance and mission worker. Early last fall I tried to get her to read the DAWNS, but she said she had no time to read anything but her Bible. Later I went to her again, and urged her very strongly to read the DAWNS; but she had just become deeply interested in another special mission work, and again declared that she had no time. I have been in the habit of visiting her frequently, but felt this summer that my time must be spent with those who had time to hear the truth. So I did not go to see her again until a few days before I left the city, and then went only to bid her good-bye. Imagine, then, how glad I was when she met me at the door and exclaimed, "Oh! those blessed, blessed books. I never was so blessed in all my life as I have been in reading them." It seems that in our talk, early in the summer, I had mentioned the fact that through reading them many infidels had been brought to a belief in Christ. Her work a little later bringing her in contact with an infidel whose arguments she could not meet, she bethought herself of the DAWNS, and borrowed from a neighbor the first and second volumes to lend to this infidel. In glancing through them she caught, here and there, a thought that held her, and she did not lend them, but read them herself.

From one of the other two, Brother Rogers last year took an order for DAWN, Vol.; but before he came to deliver it, her pastor had told her it was a dangerous book to have in the house; and when Brother R. came she refused to take the book. A day or two afterward her married daughter came in and handed her another copy of Vol. I., saying, "Here, Ma, is a book I bought of an agent. I don't like it, but I guess you will." The thought struck her that she should read the book, since it came to her in spite of her first refusal to have it. Since she has read it, her own words are, "It was food such as I had never before received from either pastor or teacher." She then lent it to a friend who found it equally good.

Both are confined at home pretty closely, so they could not attend our meetings; but a day or two before leaving the city I took my large chart down, and spent a very delightful three hours and a half in explaining it to them, and answering their questions. Found them, I believe, ripe for the truth, and rejoicing in each little bit that is made clear. Both will study the truth carefully, and walk in the light they receive.

The cold weather seems to be nigh upon us. I must sew next week, and then labor in harvest work every minute that I am able. I wish I might be able to do as well as sister McPhail, but I suppose I must be always content to do a little. Perhaps were I permitted to be a really efficient worker, I should get to thinking of myself more highly than I ought to think. The Lord knows me better than I know myself, and will doubtless grant me all the success I am able to bear.

Much love to Sister Russell and to all the dear ones at Allegheny. Yours in the Master's service, MRS. M. R. PECK.



DEAR BROTHER RUSSELL:--I take the first opportunity of fulfilling my promise, and herewith enclose Money Order for Young's Concordance, and the surplus for anything you please. Our little band will all send together in a month or so subscriptions to TOWER and Tract Fund.

You will be pleased to learn of our spiritual welfare. Brother W__________ has just returned home after a week's stay with us. We have the meetings in our home, and he was much impressed by the quiet work which is being done. I feel assured that the Lord sent him, and in so doing has blessed us all; and I trust he may be stimulated to further work in his neighborhood. He has thrown light upon the difference of colporteur work here and in the United States, having spent some years there himself. Colporteurs are looked upon with suspicion here, being either connected with Evangelical Associations ::R1479 : page 368:: or hawkers of encyclopaedias and larger works. Whereas in America much of the book selling is done in this manner, in England all has to be done through booksellers. Still I

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think we might be doing more than we are, although much is being done in a quiet way.

[The fact is that America is overrun by book agents, and the people often feel very much annoyed by them. It would seem, therefore, that if there is but little done in England in that line, that field would be all the better for our Colporteurs. The people would give them a heartier welcome than here, where two or three sometimes call in one day. And we heard recently that nearly four thousand copies of a high-priced American book, containing much unpopular error, were sold not long since in Dublin, Ireland. The sale of this book at a high price gives us great confidence that at its low price thousand of DAWNS could be sold there.

We find that many, even here, do not make a success of the Colporteur work until they have received some personal instruction from some experienced and successful worker. There is a particular "knack" required that all do not possess naturally, but which can be acquired by intelligent perseverance. When the way opens, we hope to send some experienced Brother from here to Great Britain in order to start the work there.--EDITOR.]

I was much blessed by the letter from the good "three score and ten" brother. Yes, I am sure there is no soul hungering and thirsting after the Kingdom of God, that will not be filled sooner or later.

The TOWERS are very precious; but I think I must be selfish, for I often wish that, with the exception of the encouraging letters from brethren, all discussion could be avoided. I know words of warning are necessary to the weak ones and children, but I feel sure that none of the Lord's little ones will be led astray by false teachers. And Oh! I do so love the spirit that has prevailed all along in the TOWER, and I dread anything that does not extend the same charity to others that we ourselves so much need. I seem so to revel in the beautiful pastures that I can only pity those who prefer to feed on husks.

[We are quite in sympathy with the general drift of this sentiment, and the readers of the TOWER are witnesses that its warnings are not personalities nor on trifles, but respecting the fundamentals of the Gospel and based upon the plainest teachings of the Scriptures. The denouncing of the scribes and pharisees as hypocrites and the cleansing of the typical Temple were not the most pleasing parts of our Lord's work at the First Advent, but they were necessary; and so here the warnings are not the pleasantest part of our duty, but they are a part of it, nevertheless--"Reprove, rebuke, exhort." (`2 Tim. 4:2`; `Tit. 2:14,15`.) Experience has proved that some of the Lord's people are in need of words of warning in order that they be not deceived. Facts are more than theory. God does not promise to keep his little ones free from temptation. The Lord is seeking for his Bride such as love him supremely, and he permits Satan to promulgate seductive doctrines and to be successful in deceiving all but this special class. The Apostle recognizes this in his warning--"Keep yourselves in the love of God." (`Jude 21`.) Each one, in order to be kept, must be fully consecrated and must abide on the Rock.

That some of the consecrated can be and are being deceived is shown by a recent experience which will be related in our next issue. This one, and others of whom we know, have been saved from error by words of warning and reproof, and brought back into the way. The Ninety-First Psalm intimates that human instrumentalities are used in bearing up those in danger of stumbling, as well as in the upbuilding of those who have remained faithful.--"He shall give his angels [messengers] a charge [a warning] concerning thee,...lest thou dash thy foot against a stone." This is part of the ministry of the saints. Otherwise there would be no meaning to the words of the Apostle `James (5:20`): "He which converteth a sinner [wanderer] from the error of his way shall save a soul from death."--EDITOR.]

Most loving greetings to yourself and Sister Russell from all here. A. P. RILEY.


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New York City.

DEAR BROTHER RUSSELL:--I have been working in Mount Vernon during the past week: sold 160 DAWNS--making about 800 sold there in a little less than a month's time. Many of them, I trust, are in good hands, and will bring forth fruit to the Master's praise.

I expect to deliver in Mount Vernon tomorrow and part of Tuesday, and desire to spend the remainder of the week in the interests of the meetings--calling on some of those to whom I sold the books last winter, giving out notices, etc. I have hopes that the meetings on the 27th will be quite well attended and that you will have large, intelligent and appreciative audiences.

The package of Tracts has been received. They will, I think, come in very good.

Truly yours, S. D. ROGERS.


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SUBSCRIPTION PRICE $1.00 A YEAR, IN ADVANCE, (INCLUDES ALSO A SUBSCRIPTION TO TWO COPIES OF OLD THEOLOGY TRACTS QUARTERLY) By Express Order, Postal Money Order, Bank Draft, or Registered Letter. Foreign only by Foreign Money Order.


N.B.--Those of the interested, who by reason of old age or accidents, or other adversity, are unable to pay, will be supplied FREE, if they will send a Postal Card each December, stating their case and requesting the paper.





It has been decided that hereafter only one tract subscription shall be included in a TOWER subscription, but that all who are thus subscribers to ZION'S WATCH TOWER and The Old Theology Quarterly may order as many tracts free as they can use judiciously--except those in booklet form, leatherette bound, viz., Nos. 8, 11 and 16.

So, then, order all that you can use judiciously of the following:--

No. 1. Do the Scriptures Teach that Eternal Torment is the Wages of Sin?

No. 2. Calamities--Why God Permits Them.

No. 3. Protestants, Awake! How Priestcraft now Operates.

No. 4. Dr. Talmage's View of the Millennium --with comments.

No. 5. Bible Study and Students' Helps.

No. 6. The Hope of the Groaning Creation.

No. 7. The Wonderful Story.

No. 9. Swedish translation of No. 1.

No. 10. A Broad Basis for Christian Union.

No. 12. The Divine Plan.

No. 13. Norwegian translation of No. 1.

No. 14. A Dark Cloud and its Silver Lining. Arp's Comments on MILLENNIAL DAWN.

No. 15. Thy Word is Truth. A Reply to Robert Ingersoll.


"THE WONDERFUL STORY."--Poem, 156 verses. --The Gospel in verse.--Fifteen outline illustrations. --Leatherette binding.--Choice for children; interesting also to the matured. "TABERNACLE SHADOWS OF THE BETTER SACRIFICES." --104 pages.--Leatherette binding. --Just the thing for matured Christians-- "Meat in due season." "THY Word IS TRUTH."--An answer to Robert Ingersoll's Charges against Christianity.-- Just the thing for Infidels and for skeptically inclined Christians.

These booklets sell at the hands of Colporteurs, the three for fifty cents, delivered. We supply them to TOWER readers at ten cents each; and to them or other Colporteurs at seventy-five cents per dozen--post-paid. To obtain the Colporteur rates, order not less than a half-dozen of any one kind of the booklets. We have them put up in packs of six and twelve --each kind separately.


So far as possible we prefer to have subscriptions date from January each year; but where this is not convenient we are pleased to have it otherwise. Those who cannot pay now, but who expect to do so later, and who desire that their papers continue uninterruptedly, will please drop a card saying so. Each can see just how his account stands by examining the date on the address label of his last paper. These we will correct every month hereafter.

Those who from age, accident or other misfortune are unable to afford to subscribe are still welcome to receive the WATCH TOWER free as "The Lord's Poor," if they describe themselves and make the request yearly. (Such are marked with a sign--thus: +--on the address label.) This offer is not meant for those whose inability to pay arises from the spending of a larger sum for tobacco, etc.; but all who are really of the class described are as welcome to the TOWER regularly as though they paid for it.

But it is not too much to ask such to renew their request each year on a postal card. If you have once described your case and are marked (thus: +) on your label you need not explain again; for we understand that your circumstances are still the same. Such may simply say, "Please renew my subscription as heretofore," and we shall understand them. But others not so marked (+) should explain, for we have not understood them heretofore.

Again, let us request that all the "Lord's Poor" renewals come in promptly before January '93. Those who asked the TOWER free during other months get it only until December '92 unless they now, in December, ask its renewal. "Ask and ye shall receive" is God's method--which we adopt.